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          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional8篇

          發布時間:2021-07-06   來源:中考分數線    點擊:   
          字號:

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          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional8篇

          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional(1)

          中考英語同義詞、近義詞、相似詞語辨析

          郝小興

          選擇填空。

          1. He a lot of time playing computer games on weekends.

          A. takes B. costs C. pays D. spends

          2. The clothes in that shop are quite beautiful, but most of them too much.

          A. pay B. spend C. take D. cost

          3. We will Beijing at about five o’clok tomorrow

          morning.

          A. arrive at B. arrive in C. reach to D. get

          4. Today Jim his white shirt and brown trousers.

          A. is putting on B. is wearing C. is dressing D. in

          5. Is the woman yellow your teacher?

          A. in B. putting on C. wearing D. dressing

          6.—Bob, may I your MP4?

          —Sure. But you’d better not it to others.

          A. keep; lend B. lend; borrow C. borrow; keep D. borrow; lend

          7. Don’t forget to “Thank you” when someone opens the door for you.

          A. tell B. say C. speak D. talk

          8.Our newspaper represents the of the people.

          A. shout B. noise C. voice D. cry

          9. Let’s get some about tourism on the Internet.

          A. information B. message C. invention D. book

          10.—Could you give me two on how to learn English well?

          —Sure.

          A. suggestions B. messages C. information D. advice

          11. We’re busy because we have so housework to do today.

          A. few B. little C. many D. much

          12. There is milk at home. We have to buy some this afternoon.

          A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

          13. —I’d like grapes and pears.

          —Oh, I only need orange juice.

          A. some; a few B. a few; some C. a little; few D. a little; a few

          14. I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but of them came.

          A. neither B. either C. none D. both

          15.—There’s coffee and tea; you can have .

          —Thanks.

          A. either B. each C. one D. it

          16.“Have try, you are so close to the answer,”the teacher said to Eric.

          A. the other B. one another C. other D. another

          17. My sister has two skirts. One is yellow; is black.

          A. other B. another C. others D. the other

          18. We don’t have enough nurses to look after the patients. At least are needed.

          A. tn another nurses B. more ten nurses

          C. other ten nurses D. another ten nurses

          19. Sam looks like his dad. They are tall.

          A. either B. any C. all D. both

          20. —Which of the two T-shirts will you take?

          —I’ll take , one for my brother, the other for myself.

          A. either B. neither C. all D. both

          21.—What the number of the students in your school?

          —About two thousands. A number of them from England.

          A. is ; are B. is ; is C. are ; is D. are ; are

          22. the teachers in their school is about 200 and one fourth of them are teachers.

          A. A number of ; women B.A number of ; woman

          C. The number of ; women D. The number of ; woman

          23.—Guess how much it costs?

          —I think it costs 15 and 20 dollars.

          A. from B. between C. among D.with

          24.—What do you often do classes to relax yourself?

          —Listen to music.

          A. over B. among C. between D. through

          25.—The cake looks .

          —Yes, and it tastes even _______.

          A. well ; good B.nice ; better C. good; worse D. better; best

          26. I didn’t sleep ______ last night. I feel tired now.

          A. well B. nice C. fine D. good

          27.—_______ do you visit your grandparents?

          —Once a week.

          A. How long B. How often C. How soon D. How many

          28.—_______ will the 30th London Olympic Games be held, do you know?

          —In two years.

          A. How long B. How often C. How soon D.How much

          29.—Granny, you look so weak. What’s wrong with you? —Terrible. The factory made _______ noise. It was ______ noisy that I couldn’t sleep well last night.

          A. too much; so B. much too; so C. too much; too

          D. too much; much too

          30.—Has John come _______?

          —Yes. He has ______ been here for 10 minutes.

          A. yet ; already B. already ; yet C. already ; already D. yet ; yet

          【辨析與講解】

          1.spend,take,cost,pay

          Spend的賓語通常是時間、金錢。在主動語態中,句子的主語必須是人,而且后面不能用動詞不定式作賓語。如:

          She spent the whole evening(in)reading.她把整個晚上用來讀書。

          take常用來指“花費”時間,句子的主語通常是表示事物的詞。如:

          How long will this job take you?你做這項工作要花多長時間?

          cost指花費時間、金錢或力氣等,只能用表示事物的詞作主語,且不能用于被動語態。如:

          How much does the jacket cost?這件夾克多少錢?

          pay主要指主語(某人)買某物(或為某事)付多少錢(給某人)。如:

          I pay for my rooms by month.我按月支付房租。

          2. arrive,get,reach

          三者均可表示“到達”,arrive后通常接介詞at(一般用于較小的地方)或in(一般用于較大的地方)。如:

          We arrived at the station five minutes late.我們晚了5分鐘到達車站。

          get 之后通常接介詞to。如:

          When we got to the park,it began to rain.我們到達公園時,就開始下雨了。

          reach是及物動詞(較get更正式),其后可直接跟地點名詞作賓語(后面不能接介詞)。如:

          He reached Beijing yesterday.他昨天到達北京。

          3.speak,say,talk,tell

          這四個動詞都有“說”的意思。speak的意思是“講話;演講”,著重指說話的動作,指開口說或連續不斷地說,多用作不及物動詞;用作及物動詞時,其賓語常是表示語言的詞。如:

          He can speak Japanese.他會說日語。

          Say的意思是“說;講”,一般用作及物動詞,著重指說話的內容,它的賓語可以是名詞、代詞或直接引語等。如:

          She says,“Don’t draw on the wall!”她說:“別在墻上畫畫”!

          Talk的意思是“說;講;談話”,與speak的意義比較接近,但不如speak正式,著重強調兩人之間的相互談話,也可指單方面的講話。如:

          She is talking with John in English.她正在和約翰用英語交談。

          tell意為“告訴;講述;吩咐”,多指以口頭方式將某事告訴某人,常接雙賓語。除為story,news,truth,joke,lie(謊言)等直接賓語外,還可以接人等間接賓語。如:

          She is telling the children a story.她正在給孩子們講故事。

          4.bring,take,carry,fetch

          這四個詞都是動詞,都含有“帶”或“拿”的意思,但使用的場合各不相同。

          bring作“帶來;拿來”解。如:

          Next time don’t forget to bring me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了帶一份你的作品給我。

          take是bring的對語,作“帶去,拿去”解。如:

          Take the box away,please.請把盒子拿走。

          Carry表示“運載;攜帶”,運送的方式很多,可以用車、船,也可以用手甚至用頭。如:

          This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.這輛巴士可以載一百人。

          fetch表示“去拿來”。如:

          Please fetch me the documents in that room.請到那個房間去把文件給我拿來。

          5.wear,put on,in,dress

          Wear意為“穿著;戴著”,強調穿的狀態。如:

          I often wear white trousers.我經常穿白褲子。

          put on意為“穿上;戴上”,強調穿的動作,其賓語是衣服、鞋、帽等。如:

          It’s very cold outside.You’d better put on your coat.外面很冷,你最好穿上外套。

          in是介詞,表示“穿著;戴著”,后接“衣服或顏色”,由它所構成的短語只能作表語或定語。如:

          He was in a new black coat.他穿著黑色的新外套。

          dress表示動作或狀態,常跟人作賓語,意為“給……穿衣”。如:

          Could you please help me dress the children?你能幫我給孩子們穿上衣服嗎?

          【注意】當dress表示狀態時,一般用be dressed in。

          6.borrow,lend,keep

          borrow意為“借入”,表示主語向別人借東西,是短暫性動詞,不能和表示時間段的狀語連用。常用于borrow sth. from sb.結構。如:

          I borrowed a pen from her.我向她借了一支鋼筆。

          lend 意為“借出”,表示主語把東西借給別人,常用于lend sb.sth.或lend sth. to sb.結構如:

          Could you lend me some money?=Could you lend some money to me?你能借我一些錢嗎?

          keep在表示“借”時,是延續性動詞,通常表示“借某物多長時間”,多接for短語表示時間。如:

          —How long can I keep the book?這本書我能借多少時間?

          —You can keep it for a week.你可以借一個星期。

          7.noise,voice,sound

          Sound作“聲音”解,含義最廣,指可以聽到的任何聲音。如:

          a weak sound 微弱的聲音

          noise 作“噪音;嘈雜聲;吵鬧聲”解,指不悅耳、不和諧的聲音。它既可作可數名詞,也可作不可數名詞。如:

          Another kind of pollution is noise.另外一種污染是噪音。

          Voice 作“聲音”解時,多指人發出的聲音,包括說話聲、歌聲和笑聲。如:

          He shouted at the top of voice.他高聲呼喊。

          有時也用于引申意義,作“意見、發言權”解。如:

          I have no voice in the matter.對于這件事,我沒有發言權。

          8.information,message

          Information 是不可數名詞,指通過學習、閱讀、觀察等而得到的“情報;消息”。如:

          He wanted to get some new information for the computers.他想得到一些有關計算機的新信息。

          message 意為“音信”,一般指口頭傳送或書寫的“消息”,是可數名詞。如:

          I’ll leave a message on his desk.我會在他桌上留個字條。

          注意:“兩條信息”可表示為:two pieces of information或two messages.

          9.few,a few,little, a little, several,some

          few 和little的意思是否定的,表示“很少”或“幾乎沒有”;而 a few和a little的意思是肯定的,表示“有一些,有一點兒”。 few和a few修飾可數名詞;little和a little修飾不可數名詞。

          Several用于修飾可數名詞,語意比a few和some 更肯定,含有“好幾個”的意思。

          some可修飾可數名詞,也可修飾不可數名詞。

          10.both,either,neither

          both意為“(兩者)都”, either意為“(兩者中)任意一個” neither意為“(兩者)都不”。如:

          He has two daughters;both of them are beautiful.他有兩個女兒;兩個都漂亮。

          He has two daughters; eithe of them are beautiful.他有兩個女兒;每個長得都很漂亮。

          He has two daughters;neither of them is beautiful.他有兩個女兒,兩個都不漂亮。

          它們既可用作代詞,也可作形容詞。用作形容詞時,both后接復數名詞,而either和neither之后要接單數可數名詞。

          注意:三者用作代詞并作主語時,both 之后的謂語動詞通常用復數形式,either和neither之后的謂語動詞通常用單數形式。

          11.other,another,the other,any other

          other泛指“其他的,另外的”,復數形式others 表示“另一些”,each other 表示“相互”。如:

          Shall we make it some other time?我們能否定其他時間?

          Some of us like singing and dancig,others prefer sports.我們中有些人喜歡唱歌跳舞,而另一些人則喜愛運動。

          another表示不定數目中的另一個,意為“再一,又一”,一般接單數名詞。但如果another后有few 或具體數詞時,可接復數名詞。如:

          I want another student to help me.我需要另外一個學生來幫助我。

          I want to eat another two apples.我想再吃兩個蘋果。

          the other指“兩者中的另一個”,one…the other…表示“一個……另一個……”。the other 也可指將某一整體為兩部分時,所提到的另一個部分,此時它可修飾復數名詞。

          any other常用作形容詞,其后跟可數名詞的單數形式;作“無論哪一個,哪一些”講時,其后跟名詞復數形式。如:

          He is taller than any other student in his class.他比他們班上任何其他的學生都要高。

          12.a number of,the number of

          a number of的意思是“許多的,大量的”,相當于many/ a lot of,后跟可數名詞復數。a number of…作主語時,謂語動詞用復數形式。如:

          A number of foreignes are learning Chinese.許多外國人正在學漢語。

          the number of…的意思是“……的數量/數目”,該結構與名詞連用時,中心詞是the number,作主語時,謂語動詞要用單數形式。如:

          The number of giant pandas is getting smaller and smaller because their living areas are becoming farmlands.大熊貓的數量越來越少,因為它們的生活區域被變為農田。

          13.among,between

          between的意思是“在……中間,在……之間”,一般指在兩者之間。如:

          There is a table between two windows.在兩扇窗戶之間有一張桌子。

          among的意思是“在……中間,在……之中”,一般指在三個或三個以上的同類事物之中。如:

          The teacher distibuted them among the students.老師把這些東西分給了學生。

          14.how long,how often,how soon

          how long指多長時間,主要用來對一段時間(如three days,four weeks等)提問。如:

          How long ago was it ?這是多久前的事了?

          how often指每隔多久,主要用來對頻率副詞或狀語(如once a week等)提問。如:

          —How often does he come here? 他(每隔)多久來一次?

          —Once a month.每月一次。

          how soon指再過多久,主要用來對表示將來的一段時間(in an hour,in two weeks等)提問。如:

          How soon can you come?你多快能趕來?

          15. too much,much too

          too much的含義是“太多”,much為中心詞??尚揎棽豢蓴得~、動詞。也可充當代詞,代替上下文提到的事物。如:

          We’ve had too much rain lately.最近我們這里的雨下得太多了。

          much too意為“太”,too為中心詞。在句中修飾形容詞或副詞。如:

          He drove much too fast.他開車開得太快了。

          16. already,stil,yet

          Already一般用于肯定句,常與完成時連用,但也可用于疑問句中,表示驚奇。如:

          Are you tired already?I don’t believe it!你已經累了嗎?我不相信!

          still意為“仍然,還是”,多用于肯定句和疑問句中,強調動作正在進行。如:

          They are still working.他們還在工作。

          yet 意為“已經,還,尚,仍”,一般用于否定句和疑問句中,常位于主要動詞前或句末。如:

          We haven’t been to Beijing yet.我們還沒有去過北京。

          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional(2)

          中考英語同義詞、近義詞、相似詞語辨析

          郝小興

          選擇填空。

          1. He a lot of time playing computer games on weekends.

          A. takes B. costs C. pays D. spends

          2. The clothes in that shop are quite beautiful, but most of them too much.

          A. pay B. spend C. take D. cost

          3. We will Beijing at about five o’clok tomorrow

          morning.

          A. arrive at B. arrive in C. reach to D. get

          4. Today Jim his white shirt and brown trousers.

          A. is putting on B. is wearing C. is dressing D. in

          5. Is the woman yellow your teacher?

          A. in B. putting on C. wearing D. dressing

          6.—Bob, may I your MP4?

          —Sure. But you’d better not it to others.

          A. keep; lend B. lend; borrow C. borrow; keep D. borrow; lend

          7. Don’t forget to “Thank you” when someone opens the door for you.

          A. tell B. say C. speak D. talk

          8.Our newspaper represents the of the people.

          A. shout B. noise C. voice D. cry

          9. Let’s get some about tourism on the Internet.

          A. information B. message C. invention D. book

          10.—Could you give me two on how to learn English well?

          —Sure.

          A. suggestions B. messages C. information D. advice

          11. We’re busy because we have so housework to do today.

          A. few B. little C. many D. much

          12. There is milk at home. We have to buy some this afternoon.

          A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

          13. —I’d like grapes and pears.

          —Oh, I only need orange juice.

          A. some; a few B. a few; some C. a little; few D. a little; a few

          14. I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but of them came.

          A. neither B. either C. none D. both

          15.—There’s coffee and tea; you can have .

          —Thanks.

          A. either B. each C. one D. it

          16.“Have try, you are so close to the answer,”the teacher said to Eric.

          A. the other B. one another C. other D. another

          17. My sister has two skirts. One is yellow; is black.

          A. other B. another C. others D. the other

          18. We don’t have enough nurses to look after the patients. At least are needed.

          A. tn another nurses B. more ten nurses

          C. other ten nurses D. another ten nurses

          19. Sam looks like his dad. They are tall.

          A. either B. any C. all D. both

          20. —Which of the two T-shirts will you take?

          —I’ll take , one for my brother, the other for myself.

          A. either B. neither C. all D. both

          21.—What the number of the students in your school?

          —About two thousands. A number of them from England.

          A. is ; are B. is ; is C. are ; is D. are ; are

          22. the teachers in their school is about 200 and one fourth of them are teachers.

          A. A number of ; women B.A number of ; woman

          C. The number of ; women D. The number of ; woman

          23.—Guess how much it costs?

          —I think it costs 15 and 20 dollars.

          A. from B. between C. among D.with

          24.—What do you often do classes to relax yourself?

          —Listen to music.

          A. over B. among C. between D. through

          25.—The cake looks .

          —Yes, and it tastes even _______.

          A. well ; good B.nice ; better C. good; worse D. better; best

          26. I didn’t sleep ______ last night. I feel tired now.

          A. well B. nice C. fine D. good

          27.—_______ do you visit your grandparents?

          —Once a week.

          A. How long B. How often C. How soon D. How many

          28.—_______ will the 30th London Olympic Games be held, do you know?

          —In two years.

          A. How long B. How often C. How soon D.How much

          29.—Granny, you look so weak. What’s wrong with you? —Terrible. The factory made _______ noise. It was ______ noisy that I couldn’t sleep well last night.

          A. too much; so B. much too; so C. too much; too

          D. too much; much too

          30.—Has John come _______?

          —Yes. He has ______ been here for 10 minutes.

          A. yet ; already B. already ; yet C. already ; already D. yet ; yet

          【辨析與講解】

          1.spend,take,cost,pay

          Spend的賓語通常是時間、金錢。在主動語態中,句子的主語必須是人,而且后面不能用動詞不定式作賓語。如:

          She spent the whole evening(in)reading.她把整個晚上用來讀書。

          take常用來指“花費”時間,句子的主語通常是表示事物的詞。如:

          How long will this job take you?你做這項工作要花多長時間?

          cost指花費時間、金錢或力氣等,只能用表示事物的詞作主語,且不能用于被動語態。如:

          How much does the jacket cost?這件夾克多少錢?

          pay主要指主語(某人)買某物(或為某事)付多少錢(給某人)。如:

          I pay for my rooms by month.我按月支付房租。

          2. arrive,get,reach

          三者均可表示“到達”,arrive后通常接介詞at(一般用于較小的地方)或in(一般用于較大的地方)。如:

          We arrived at the station five minutes late.我們晚了5分鐘到達車站。

          get 之后通常接介詞to。如:

          When we got to the park,it began to rain.我們到達公園時,就開始下雨了。

          reach是及物動詞(較get更正式),其后可直接跟地點名詞作賓語(后面不能接介詞)。如:

          He reached Beijing yesterday.他昨天到達北京。

          3.speak,say,talk,tell

          這四個動詞都有“說”的意思。speak的意思是“講話;演講”,著重指說話的動作,指開口說或連續不斷地說,多用作不及物動詞;用作及物動詞時,其賓語常是表示語言的詞。如:

          He can speak Japanese.他會說日語。

          Say的意思是“說;講”,一般用作及物動詞,著重指說話的內容,它的賓語可以是名詞、代詞或直接引語等。如:

          She says,“Don’t draw on the wall!”她說:“別在墻上畫畫”!

          Talk的意思是“說;講;談話”,與speak的意義比較接近,但不如speak正式,著重強調兩人之間的相互談話,也可指單方面的講話。如:

          She is talking with John in English.她正在和約翰用英語交談。

          tell意為“告訴;講述;吩咐”,多指以口頭方式將某事告訴某人,常接雙賓語。除為story,news,truth,joke,lie(謊言)等直接賓語外,還可以接人等間接賓語。如:

          She is telling the children a story.她正在給孩子們講故事。

          4.bring,take,carry,fetch

          這四個詞都是動詞,都含有“帶”或“拿”的意思,但使用的場合各不相同。

          bring作“帶來;拿來”解。如:

          Next time don’t forget to bring me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了帶一份你的作品給我。

          take是bring的對語,作“帶去,拿去”解。如:

          Take the box away,please.請把盒子拿走。

          Carry表示“運載;攜帶”,運送的方式很多,可以用車、船,也可以用手甚至用頭。如:

          This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.這輛巴士可以載一百人。

          fetch表示“去拿來”。如:

          Please fetch me the documents in that room.請到那個房間去把文件給我拿來。

          5.wear,put on,in,dress

          Wear意為“穿著;戴著”,強調穿的狀態。如:

          I often wear white trousers.我經常穿白褲子。

          put on意為“穿上;戴上”,強調穿的動作,其賓語是衣服、鞋、帽等。如:

          It’s very cold outside.You’d better put on your coat.外面很冷,你最好穿上外套。

          in是介詞,表示“穿著;戴著”,后接“衣服或顏色”,由它所構成的短語只能作表語或定語。如:

          He was in a new black coat.他穿著黑色的新外套。

          dress表示動作或狀態,常跟人作賓語,意為“給……穿衣”。如:

          Could you please help me dress the children?你能幫我給孩子們穿上衣服嗎?

          【注意】當dress表示狀態時,一般用be dressed in。

          6.borrow,lend,keep

          borrow意為“借入”,表示主語向別人借東西,是短暫性動詞,不能和表示時間段的狀語連用。常用于borrow sth. from sb.結構。如:

          I borrowed a pen from her.我向她借了一支鋼筆。

          lend 意為“借出”,表示主語把東西借給別人,常用于lend sb.sth.或lend sth. to sb.結構如:

          Could you lend me some money?=Could you lend some money to me?你能借我一些錢嗎?

          keep在表示“借”時,是延續性動詞,通常表示“借某物多長時間”,多接for短語表示時間。如:

          —How long can I keep the book?這本書我能借多少時間?

          —You can keep it for a week.你可以借一個星期。

          7.noise,voice,sound

          Sound作“聲音”解,含義最廣,指可以聽到的任何聲音。如:

          a weak sound 微弱的聲音

          noise 作“噪音;嘈雜聲;吵鬧聲”解,指不悅耳、不和諧的聲音。它既可作可數名詞,也可作不可數名詞。如:

          Another kind of pollution is noise.另外一種污染是噪音。

          Voice 作“聲音”解時,多指人發出的聲音,包括說話聲、歌聲和笑聲。如:

          He shouted at the top of voice.他高聲呼喊。

          有時也用于引申意義,作“意見、發言權”解。如:

          I have no voice in the matter.對于這件事,我沒有發言權。

          8.information,message

          Information 是不可數名詞,指通過學習、閱讀、觀察等而得到的“情報;消息”。如:

          He wanted to get some new information for the computers.他想得到一些有關計算機的新信息。

          message 意為“音信”,一般指口頭傳送或書寫的“消息”,是可數名詞。如:

          I’ll leave a message on his desk.我會在他桌上留個字條。

          注意:“兩條信息”可表示為:two pieces of information或two messages.

          9.few,a few,little, a little, several,some

          few 和little的意思是否定的,表示“很少”或“幾乎沒有”;而 a few和a little的意思是肯定的,表示“有一些,有一點兒”。 few和a few修飾可數名詞;little和a little修飾不可數名詞。

          Several用于修飾可數名詞,語意比a few和some 更肯定,含有“好幾個”的意思。

          some可修飾可數名詞,也可修飾不可數名詞。

          10.both,either,neither

          both意為“(兩者)都”, either意為“(兩者中)任意一個” neither意為“(兩者)都不”。如:

          He has two daughters;both of them are beautiful.他有兩個女兒;兩個都漂亮。

          He has two daughters; eithe of them are beautiful.他有兩個女兒;每個長得都很漂亮。

          He has two daughters;neither of them is beautiful.他有兩個女兒,兩個都不漂亮。

          它們既可用作代詞,也可作形容詞。用作形容詞時,both后接復數名詞,而either和neither之后要接單數可數名詞。

          注意:三者用作代詞并作主語時,both 之后的謂語動詞通常用復數形式,either和neither之后的謂語動詞通常用單數形式。

          11.other,another,the other,any other

          other泛指“其他的,另外的”,復數形式others 表示“另一些”,each other 表示“相互”。如:

          Shall we make it some other time?我們能否定其他時間?

          Some of us like singing and dancig,others prefer sports.我們中有些人喜歡唱歌跳舞,而另一些人則喜愛運動。

          another表示不定數目中的另一個,意為“再一,又一”,一般接單數名詞。但如果another后有few 或具體數詞時,可接復數名詞。如:

          I want another student to help me.我需要另外一個學生來幫助我。

          I want to eat another two apples.我想再吃兩個蘋果。

          the other指“兩者中的另一個”,one…the other…表示“一個……另一個……”。the other 也可指將某一整體為兩部分時,所提到的另一個部分,此時它可修飾復數名詞。

          any other常用作形容詞,其后跟可數名詞的單數形式;作“無論哪一個,哪一些”講時,其后跟名詞復數形式。如:

          He is taller than any other student in his class.他比他們班上任何其他的學生都要高。

          12.a number of,the number of

          a number of的意思是“許多的,大量的”,相當于many/ a lot of,后跟可數名詞復數。a number of…作主語時,謂語動詞用復數形式。如:

          A number of foreignes are learning Chinese.許多外國人正在學漢語。

          the number of…的意思是“……的數量/數目”,該結構與名詞連用時,中心詞是the number,作主語時,謂語動詞要用單數形式。如:

          The number of giant pandas is getting smaller and smaller because their living areas are becoming farmlands.大熊貓的數量越來越少,因為它們的生活區域被變為農田。

          13.among,between

          between的意思是“在……中間,在……之間”,一般指在兩者之間。如:

          There is a table between two windows.在兩扇窗戶之間有一張桌子。

          among的意思是“在……中間,在……之中”,一般指在三個或三個以上的同類事物之中。如:

          The teacher distibuted them among the students.老師把這些東西分給了學生。

          14.how long,how often,how soon

          how long指多長時間,主要用來對一段時間(如three days,four weeks等)提問。如:

          How long ago was it ?這是多久前的事了?

          how often指每隔多久,主要用來對頻率副詞或狀語(如once a week等)提問。如:

          —How often does he come here? 他(每隔)多久來一次?

          —Once a month.每月一次。

          how soon指再過多久,主要用來對表示將來的一段時間(in an hour,in two weeks等)提問。如:

          How soon can you come?你多快能趕來?

          15. too much,much too

          too much的含義是“太多”,much為中心詞??尚揎棽豢蓴得~、動詞。也可充當代詞,代替上下文提到的事物。如:

          We’ve had too much rain lately.最近我們這里的雨下得太多了。

          much too意為“太”,too為中心詞。在句中修飾形容詞或副詞。如:

          He drove much too fast.他開車開得太快了。

          16. already,stil,yet

          Already一般用于肯定句,常與完成時連用,但也可用于疑問句中,表示驚奇。如:

          Are you tired already?I don’t believe it!你已經累了嗎?我不相信!

          still意為“仍然,還是”,多用于肯定句和疑問句中,強調動作正在進行。如:

          They are still working.他們還在工作。

          yet 意為“已經,還,尚,仍”,一般用于否定句和疑問句中,常位于主要動詞前或句末。如:

          We haven’t been to Beijing yet.我們還沒有去過北京。

          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional(3)

          中考英語同義詞、近義詞、相似詞語辨析

          郝小興

          選擇填空。

          1. He

          A. takes B. costs C. pays D. spends

          2. The clothes in that shop are quite beautiful, but most of them too much.

          A. pay B. spend C. take D. cost

          3. We will Beijing at about five o’clok tomorrow

          morning.

          A. arrive at B. arrive in C. reach to D. get

          4. Today Jim his white shirt and brown trousers.

          A. is putting on B. is wearing C. is dressing D. in

          5. Is the woman yellow your teacher?

          A. in B. putting on C. wearing D. dressing

          6.—Bob, may I your MP4?

          —Sure. But you’d better not it to others.

          A. keep; lend B. lend; borrow C. borrow; keep D. borrow; lend

          7. Don’t forget to “Thank you” when someone opens the door for you.

          A. tell B. say C. speak D. talk

          8.Our newspaper represents the of the people.

          A. shout B. noise C. voice D. cry

          9. Let’s get some about tourism on the Internet.

          A. information B. message C. invention D. book

          10.—Could you give me two on how to learn English well?

          —Sure.

          A. suggestions B. messages C. information D. advice

          11. We’re busy because we have so housework to do today.

          A. few B. little C. many D. much

          12. There is milk at home. We have to buy some this afternoon.

          A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

          13. —I’d like grapes and pears.

          —Oh, I only need orange juice.

          A. some; a few B. a few; some C. a little; few D. a little; a few

          14. I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but of them came.

          A. neither B. either C. none D. both

          15.—There’s coffee and tea; you can have .

          —Thanks.

          A. either B. each C. one D. it

          16.“Have try, you are so close to the answer,”the teacher said to Eric.

          A. the other B. one another C. other D. another

          17. My sister has two skirts. One is yellow; is black.

          A. other B. another C. others D. the other

          18. We don’t have enough nurses to look after the patients. At least are needed.

          A. tn another nurses B. more ten nurses

          C. other ten nurses D. another ten nurses

          19. Sam looks like his dad. They are tall.

          A. either B. any C. all D. both

          20. —Which of the two T-shirts will you take?

          —I’ll take , one for my brother, the other for myself.

          A. either B. neither C. all D. both

          21.—What the number of the students in your school?

          —About two thousands. A number of them from England.

          A. is ; are B. is ; is C. are ; is D. are ; are

          22. the teachers in their school is about 200 and one fourth of them are teachers.

          A. A number of ; women B.A number of ; woman

          C. The number of ; women D. The number of ; woman

          23.—Guess how much it costs?

          —I think it costs 15 and 20 dollars.

          A. from B. between C. among D.with

          24.—What do you often do classes to relax yourself?

          —Listen to music.

          A. over B. among C. between D. through

          25.—The cake looks .

          —Yes, and it tastes even _______.

          A. well ; good B.nice ; better C. good; worse D. better; best

          26. I didn’t sleep ______ last night. I feel tired now.

          A. well B. nice C. fine D. good

          27.—_______ do you visit your grandparents?

          —Once a week.

          A. How long B. How often C. How soon D. How many

          28.—_______ will the 30th London Olympic Games be held, do you know?

          —In two years.

          A. How long B. How often C. How soon D.How much

          29.—Granny, you look so weak. What’s wrong with you? —Terrible. The factory made _______ noise. It was ______ noisy that I couldn’t sleep well last night.

          A. too much; so B. much too; so C. too much; too

          D. too much; much too

          30.—

          —Yes. He has ______ been here for 10 minutes.

          A. yet ; already B. already ; yet C. already ; already D. yet ; yet

          【辨析與講解】

          1.spend,take,cost,pay

          Spend的賓語通常是時間、金錢。在主動語態中,句子的主語必須是人,而且后面不能用動詞不定式作賓語。如:

          She spent the whole evening(in)reading.她把整個晚上用來讀書。

          take常用來指“花費”時間,句子的主語通常是表示事物的詞。如:

          How long will this job take you?你做這項工作要花多長時間?

          cost指花費時間、金錢或力氣等,只能用表示事物的詞作主語,且不能用于被動語態。如:

          How much does the jacket cost?這件夾克多少錢?

          pay主要指主語(某人)買某物(或為某事)付多少錢(給某人)。如:

          I pay for my rooms by month.我按月支付房租。

          2. arrive,get,reach

          三者均可表示“到達”,arrive后通常接介詞at(一般用于較小的地方)或in(一般用于較大的地方)。如:

          We arrived at the station five minutes late.我們晚了5分鐘到達車站。

          get 之后通常接介詞to。如:

          When we got to the park,it began to rain.我們到達公園時,就開始下雨了。

          reach是及物動詞(較get更正式),其后可直接跟地點名詞作賓語(后面不能接介詞)。如:

          He reached Beijing yesterday.他昨天到達北京。

          3.speak,say,talk,tell

          這四個動詞都有“說”的意思。speak的意思是“講話;演講”,著重指說話的動作,指開口說或連續不斷地說,多用作不及物動詞;用作及物動詞時,其賓語常是表示語言的詞。如:

          He can speak Japanese.他會說日語。

          Say的意思是“說;講”,一般用作及物動詞,著重指說話的內容,它的賓語可以是名詞、代詞或直接引語等。如:

          She says,“Don’t draw on the wall!”她說:“別在墻上畫畫”!

          Talk的意思是“說;講;談話”,與speak的意義比較接近,但不如speak正式,著重強調兩人之間的相互談話,也可指單方面的講話。如:

          She is talking with John in English.她正在和約翰用英語交談。

          tell意為“告訴;講述;吩咐”,多指以口頭方式將某事告訴某人,常接雙賓語。除為story,news,truth,joke,lie(謊言)等直接賓語外,還可以接人等間接賓語。如:

          She is telling the children a story.她正在給孩子們講故事。

          4.bring,take,carry,fetch

          這四個詞都是動詞,都含有“帶”或“拿”的意思,但使用的場合各不相同。

          bring作“帶來;拿來”解。如:

          Next time don’t forget to bring me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了帶一份你的作品給我。

          take是bring的對語,作“帶去,拿去”解。如:

          Take the box away,please.請把盒子拿走。

          Carry表示“運載;攜帶”,運送的方式很多,可以用車、船,也可以用手甚至用頭。如:

          This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.這輛巴士可以載一百人。

          fetch表示“去拿來”。如:

          Please fetch me the documents in that room.請到那個房間去把文件給我拿來。

          5.wear,put on,in,dress

          Wear意為“穿著;戴著”,強調穿的狀態。如:

          I often wear white trousers.我經常穿白褲子。

          put on意為“穿上;戴上”,強調穿的動作,其賓語是衣服、鞋、帽等。如:

          It’s very cold outside.You’d better put on your coat.外面很冷,你最好穿上外套。

          in是介詞,表示“穿著;戴著”,后接“衣服或顏色”,由它所構成的短語只能作表語或定語。如:

          He was in a new black coat.他穿著黑色的新外套。

          dress表示動作或狀態,常跟人作賓語,意為“給……穿衣”。如:

          Could you please help me dress the children?你能幫我給孩子們穿上衣服嗎?

          【注意】當dress表示狀態時,一般用be dressed in。

          6.borrow,lend,keep

          borrow意為“借入”,表示主語向別人借東西,是短暫性動詞,不能和表示時間段的狀語連用。常用于borrow sth. from sb.結構。如:

          I borrowed a pen from her.我向她借了一支鋼筆。

          lend 意為“借出”,表示主語把東西借給別人,常用于lend sb.sth.或lend sth. to sb.結構如:

          Could you lend me some money?=Could you lend some money to me?你能借我一些錢嗎?

          keep在表示“借”時,是延續性動詞,通常表示“借某物多長時間”,多接for短語表示時間。如:

          —How long can I keep the book?這本書我能借多少時間?

          —You can keep it for a week.你可以借一個星期。

          7.noise,voice,sound

          Sound作“聲音”解,含義最廣,指可以聽到的任何聲音。如:

          a weak sound 微弱的聲音

          noise 作“噪音;嘈雜聲;吵鬧聲”解,指不悅耳、不和諧的聲音。它既可作可數名詞,也可作不可數名詞。如:

          Another kind of pollution is noise.另外一種污染是噪音。

          Voice 作“聲音”解時,多指人發出的聲音,包括說話聲、歌聲和笑聲。如:

          He shouted at the top of voice.他高聲呼喊。

          有時也用于引申意義,作“意見、發言權”解。如:

          I have no voice in the matter.對于這件事,我沒有發言權。

          8.information,message

          Information 是不可數名詞,指通過學習、閱讀、觀察等而得到的“情報;消息”。如:

          .他想得到一些有關計算機的新信息。

          message 意為“音信”,一般指口頭傳送或書寫的“消息”,是可數名詞。如:

          I’ll leave a message on his desk.我會在他桌上留個字條。

          注意:“兩條信息”可表示為:two pieces of information或two messages.

          9.few,a few,little, a little, several,some

          few 和little的意思是否定的,表示“很少”或“幾乎沒有”;而 a few和a little的意思是肯定的,表示“有一些,有一點兒”。 few和a few修飾可數名詞;little和a little修飾不可數名詞。

          Several用于修飾可數名詞,語意比a few和some 更肯定,含有“好幾個”的意思。

          some可修飾可數名詞,也可修飾不可數名詞。

          10.both,either,neither

          both意為“(兩者)都”, either意為“(兩者中)任意一個” neither意為“(兩者)都不”。如:

          He has two daughters;both of them are beautiful.他有兩個女兒;兩個都漂亮。

          He has two daughters; eithe of them are beautiful.他有兩個女兒;每個長得都很漂亮。

          He has two daughters;neither of them is beautiful.他有兩個女兒,兩個都不漂亮。

          它們既可用作代詞,也可作形容詞。用作形容詞時,both后接復數名詞,而either和neither之后要接單數可數名詞。

          注意:三者用作代詞并作主語時,both 之后的謂語動詞通常用復數形式,either和neither之后的謂語動詞通常用單數形式。

          11.other,another,the other,any other

          other泛指“其他的,另外的”,復數形式others 表示“另一些”,each other 表示“相互”。如:

          Shall we make it some other time?我們能否定其他時間?

          Some of us like singing and dancig,others prefer sports.我們中有些人喜歡唱歌跳舞,而另一些人則喜愛運動。

          another表示不定數目中的另一個,意為“再一,又一”,一般接單數名詞。但如果another后有few 或具體數詞時,可接復數名詞。如:

          I want another student to help me.我需要另外一個學生來幫助我。

          I want to eat another two apples.我想再吃兩個蘋果。

          the other指“兩者中的另一個”,one…the other…表示“一個……另一個……”。the other 也可指將某一整體為兩部分時,所提到的另一個部分,此時它可修飾復數名詞。

          any other常用作形容詞,其后跟可數名詞的單數形式;作“無論哪一個,哪一些”講時,其后跟名詞復數形式。如:

          He is taller than any other student in his class.他比他們班上任何其他的學生都要高。

          12.a number of,the number of

          a number of的意思是“許多的,大量的”,相當于many/ a lot of,后跟可數名詞復數。a number of…作主語時,謂語動詞用復數形式。如:

          A number of foreignes are learning Chinese.許多外國人正在學漢語。

          the number of…的意思是“……的數量/數目”,該結構與名詞連用時,中心詞是the number,作主語時,謂語動詞要用單數形式。如:

          .大熊貓的數量越來越少,因為它們的生活區域被變為農田。

          13.among,between

          between的意思是“在……中間,在……之間”,一般指在兩者之間。如:

          There is a table between two windows.在兩扇窗戶之間有一張桌子。

          among的意思是“在……中間,在……之中”,一般指在三個或三個以上的同類事物之中。如:

          The teacher distibuted them among the students.老師把這些東西分給了學生。

          14.how long,how often,how soon

          how long指多長時間,主要用來對一段時間(如three days,four weeks等)提問。如:

          How long ago was it ?這是多久前的事了?

          how often指每隔多久,主要用來對頻率副詞或狀語(如once a week等)提問。如:

          —e? 他(每隔)多久來一次?

          —Once a month.每月一次。

          how soon指再過多久,主要用來對表示將來的一段時間(in an hour,in two weeks等)提問。如:

          e?你多快能趕來?

          15. too much,much too

          too much的含義是“太多”,much為中心詞??尚揎棽豢蓴得~、動詞。也可充當代詞,代替上下文提到的事物。如:

          We’ve had too much rain lately.最近我們這里的雨下得太多了。

          much too意為“太”,too為中心詞。在句中修飾形容詞或副詞。如:

          He drove much too fast.他開車開得太快了。

          16. already,stil,yet

          Already一般用于肯定句,常與完成時連用,但也可用于疑問句中,表示驚奇。如:

          Are you tired already?I don’t believe it!你已經累了嗎?我不相信!

          still意為“仍然,還是”,多用于肯定句和疑問句中,強調動作正在進行。如:

          They are still working.他們還在工作。

          yet 意為“已經,還,尚,仍”,一般用于否定句和疑問句中,常位于主要動詞前或句末。如:

          We haven’t been to Beijing yet.我們還沒有去過北京。

          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional(4)

          英語相似詞語辨析

            able,capable

            這一對詞都是形容詞,又都含有能夠、能干之意,但涵義和使用場合有所不同,大致有如下幾點區別:

           ?。ㄒ唬?/p>

            在用作定語表示能干的意味時,able所描述的范圍較概括,capable所描述的范圍較專注,因為前者指某人聰明能干,有多才多藝的概括涵義;后者僅指具有應付某一特指工作要求的能力。例:

            She is an able teacher

            她是個能干的教師。

            She is a capable teacher.

            她是個能勝任工作的教師。

           ?。ǘ?/p>

            able指能夠,是一時之現象;capable常用以指能力,是經常的現象。如:

            I shall not be able to come to the office tomorrow.

            明天我不能到辦公室來(指由于某種原因而暫時不能來)。

            She is incapable of manual labour.

            她不能從事體力勞動(指由于某種長期或經常的原因,例如患病而不能勞動)。

           ?。ㄈ?/p>

            指某人能作某事時,able之后接動詞不定式,capable之后接介詞of.例如:

            We are able to get back to town before dark.

            我們能夠天黑之前趕回市區。

            They are not capable of doing the work.

            他們沒有能力做這件工作。

          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional(5)

          相似詞語的辨析

            一、 finish, end, complete

            1. finish 常譯為“完成,結束”,強調做某動作的結束,后面可接名詞、代詞、動名詞。

            例如: I have finish the book.

            我已經把這本書看完了。

            分析: finish 后接 book 作賓語,強調看書這個動作結束。

            2. end 常譯為“結束”,強調某事終止的時間而不考慮內容是否真正完成,常用于講話、演講、會議、戰爭等。

            例如: The war ended in 1945.

            戰爭于 1945 年結束。

            分析: end 在這里只強調戰爭在 1945 年結束,而沒有涉及到戰爭是否進行到最后。

            3. complete 常譯為“完成,完畢”,一般指具體某一工程或一部分書的完成,強調完成工程。另外,還有“使……完整”之意。

            例如: I have completed the book.

            我已寫完了這本書。

            分析:強調寫完了整本書,整本書全部完成。

            There is one word missing in the sentence, please complete it.

            這個句子缺少一個單詞,請將其填入使句子完整。

            分析:句子缺少一個單詞,說明給句子加上一個單詞就能使句子完整。

            二、 for a moment, for the moment, in a moment, at the moment

            1. for a moment 常譯為“片刻,一會兒”。例如:

            For a moment I thought of playing truant.

            那一刻我有了逃學的念頭。

            I would like to speak to you for a moment.

            我想和你談一會兒。

            2. for the moment 常譯為“暫時,目前”。

            例如: Filled for the moment with extraordinary strength, he raised  himself completely.

            他一下子使出了驚人的力氣,完全站了起來。

            We have to stay in the inn for the moment, as the hotels around are full.

            由于周圍的旅館都已住滿了,我們暫時只能呆在小客棧里。

            3. in a moment 常譯為“立即,立刻”。

            例如:You go first, I will go in a moment.

            你先走,我馬上就來。

            Do not go away, the bus will start in a moment.

            別走開,汽車馬上就開了。

            4. at the moment 用于現在時中,常譯為“此刻”;用于過去時態中,常譯為“那時”。

            例如: I am busy at the moment.

            我此刻很忙。

            Our manager is having an interview with a newspaper reporter at the moment.

            此刻我們經理正在接受報社記者采訪。

            At the moment, Tom was playing hide-seek with other boys.

            那時,湯姆正與其他孩子捉迷藏。

            三、 fault, shortcoming, mistake, wrong

            1. fault 常譯為“缺點,毛病,過失”,多指性格上的弱點,或行為上的過失,強調由于過失而應付的責任。例如:

            It is his own fault that he failed in the examination.

            考試失敗是他自己的過失。

            2. shortcoming 常譯為“缺點,短處”,指日常生活、工作、學習中的不足、缺點、毛病,指一般的缺點,常用復數。

            例如: Though he has a lot of shortcomings, he is a good student.

            盡管他有很多缺點,他還是一個好學生。

            3. mistake 常譯為“錯誤,誤會”,多指缺乏正確理解,造成行動上或認識上的錯誤。

            例如: I took your book by mistake.

            我錯拿了你的書。

            4. wrong 常譯為“過失,委屈,罪行”,主要指不符合道德法規的錯誤,罪行、不公正的對待。

            例如: You should know right from wrong.

            你應該明辨是非。

            四、 for the first time, the first time

            兩個短語都是“第一次,首次”的意思。但是, for the first time 表示有生以來或一生中第一次做某事,在句中一般單獨作狀語; the first time 常引導時間狀語從句,其重點不是要說第一次做了什么,而是要敘述這一動作產生的情況;也可以引導一個表語從句,強調到說話為止某一動作發生的次數。例如:

            1. The girl was criticized by her teacher for the first time.

            分析: for the first time 在句中作狀語。

            2. He was invited to give an important talk for the first time.

            分析: for the first time 在句中作狀語。

            3. The first time I met her, I knew we could be friends.

            分析: the first time 在句中引導時間狀語從句,相當于 when .

            4. The first time I came to the village, it was very poor and backward.

            分析: the first time 在句中引導時間狀語從句,相當于 when .

          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional(6)

            believe,believe in

            這一對詞語都表示“相信不疑”的意思,但詞意有細微的區別。

            Believe表示“相信”、“信以為真”(to accept as true)之意,它是及物動詞,其后直接跟賓語。例

            Do you believe his reports?

            你相信他的報告嗎?

            I could hardly believe my eyes.

            我幾乎不能相信自己的眼睛。

            In ancient times it was believed that the earth was flat.

            古時候,人們認為地球是扁平的。

            Believe in則表示“信仰”、“信任”(to have faith in somebody or something)之意。其后的常用搭配語為有關宗教、理論、原則、概念及可信任之人,如a religion、ghosts、 fairies、 a theory、 a friend等詞;例中的believe為不及物動詞。如

            We do not believe in ghosts.

            我們不信鬼神。

            He believes in getting plenty of exercise.

            他相信多鍛煉身體就會有好處。

            In the days of the French Revolution,people believed in liberty,equality and fraternity.

            法國大革命時代的人們信奉自由、平等及博愛。

            現在試比較下列兩語的不同涵義

            I believe him.(=I believe what he says)

            我相信他(的話)。

            I believe in him.(=I trust him )

            我相信他是一個可以信得過的人。(即我信任他)

            在英美人的談話中,經??梢月牭竭@么一句口頭禪——Believe me這是一個用以表示希望對方相信自己談話的口頭語,它相當于I bet或 Take my word for it.例

            Believe me,you will get well very soon.

            你一定會很快就恢復健康的。

            Believe me 可以根據不同的場合,譯作“真的”、“我不騙你”、“一定會”或“請相信”。

          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional(7)

          ????? able, capable
            這一對詞都是形容詞,又都含有“能夠”、“能干”之意,但涵義和使用場合有所不同,大致有如下幾點區別:
           ?。ㄒ唬┰谟米鞫ㄕZ表示“能干的”意味時,able所描述的范圍較概括,capable所描述的范圍較專注,因為前者指某人聰明能干,有多才多藝的概括涵義;后者僅指具有應付某一特指工作要求的能力。例:
            She is an able teacher
            她是個能干的教師。
            She is a capable teacher.
            她是個能勝任工作的教師。
           ?。ǘ゛ble指“能夠”,是一時之現象;capable常用以指“能力”,是經常的現象。如:
            I shall not be able to come to the office tomorrow.
            明天我不能到辦公室來(指由于某種原因而暫時不能來)。
            She is incapable of manual labour.
            她不能從事體力勞動(指由于某種長期或經常的原因,例如患病而不能勞動)。
           ?。ㄈ┲改橙四茏髂呈聲r,able之后接動詞不定式,capable之后接介詞of。例如:
            We are able to get back to town before dark.
            我們能夠天黑之前趕回市區。
            They are not capable of doing the work.
            他們沒有能力做這件工作。
           ?。ㄋ模ヽapable除表示“有能力的”意味外,還可用以表示“有可能的”涵義,able則沒有這個用法。如:
            The situation is capable of improvement.
            此情況有可能好轉。
            That oil tanker is capable of being restored.
            那艘油輪有可能修好。
            請注意,下列句中的able是用錯了,應改為capable:
            This book is able to be translated.(錯)
            This book is capable of being translated.(對)
            That law is able to be evaded.(錯)
            That law is capable of being evaded.(對)
           ?。ㄎ澹?able 一般用作正面意義,指好人好事;capable 則是中性詞,既可指好事,亦可指壞事,例如在下例中,capable of anything是表示“任何壞事都做得出來”之意:
            That guy is capable of anything!
            那家伙什么勾當都會干得出來!
           ?。?able的反義詞是unable;capable的反義詞是incapable。另一點值得注意的是,able的名詞是 ability,義:“能力”(the power to do);capable的名詞是capability 或 capacity,前者義:“具有從事某事的能力”;后者義:“容量”或“受容力”。需要在此指出的是,ability是可以通過練習或鍛煉獲得的,而capability則是固有的能力,它與練習或鍛煉無關。通過下列例句的對比,我們不難區分其義蘊:
            I do not doubt his ability to do the work.
            He has the capability to benefit from university education.
            第一句的ability是指通過訓練或工作磨煉而獲得的“能力”;第二句的capability是指天賦之才,與后天無關。?
          ?
            according as,according to
            這兩個詞組雖然相似,但它們的結構和使用場合并不相同。according to表示“根據”、“按照”;而according as表示“視乎”,有depending及according to whether的意味。
            According as是連詞詞組,其后接從句;according to 是介詞短語,其后接名詞。例:
            The thermometer rises or falls according to the high or low temperature.
            寒暑表根據氣溫的高低而升降。
            They will be praised or blamed according as their work is good or bad.
            給他們的賞罰將視乎他們工作的好壞來決定。
            應當在此指出,在現代英語中,according as的句型結構已很少有人使用,正如 Bergen Evans和 Cornelia Evans在A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage 中指出的那樣:“This construction is not often heard today”。
            下面是according to的例句:
            According to the weather report,we shall have cold weather next week.
            根據天氣報告,下星期天氣將要轉冷。
            You should act according to circumstances.你們要隨機應變。
            According to有個同義短語,即 in accordance with,但它們的涵義有細微的區別,前者強調“根據…所言”,后者則強調“與…要一致”。另外 in accordance with多用于正式場合,例如表示與一些原則、規律一致。例:
            According to police report,five luxury cars were stolen in Kowloon yesterday.
            根據警方報告,昨天在九龍有五輛豪華汽車失竊。
            We must proceed in accordance with the rules.
            我們必須按照規章辦事。
            That sentence is not in accordance with the rules of grammar.
            那個句子不符合語法規則。
            請注意,in accordance with 既可引導 adverbial phrase,又可引導adjectival phrase作verb“to be”的補語(見上面 in accordance with的第一和第二個例句);according to則不能。例如,我們不能說:
            The news is according to Hong Kong’s broadcasting station.(錯)
            另一點需要補充說明的是,in accord with 和 in accordance with同義,它們可以互換使用,但前者遠不及后者用得普遍。英國學者F.T.Wood認為,我們最好在強凋“與…一致”(agreement)的時候,用in accord with;在強調“服從”或“遵照執行”(obeying or following)的涵義時,用 in accordance with。例如:
            What he has done is not in accord with your instructions.
            In accordance with your instructions we have suspended work on the heating apparatus.?

            across, cross
            這兩個詞都是表示“橫越”、“渡過”之意,在拼寫上僅差一字之微,故很易混淆。它們的區別在于詞性和使用場合有所不同。across是介詞;cross是動詞。
            下面請看例句:
            My house is across the harbour,in the vicinity of the Kowloon Park.
            我的家在海港的對岸,九龍公園附近。
            They live across the Central Plaza.
            他們住在中央廣場的對面。
            Everyone shouts“kill it!”when a rat is seen to run across the street.
            老鼠過街,人人喊打。
            He has crossed the border into another territory.
            他已越過邊界進入別國的領土。
            Many steel arch bridges cross the Mississippi in its lower reaches.
            在密西西比河的下游許多拱形鐵僑橫跨河面。
            They have crossed over to Japan.
            他們已東渡去日本了。
            coss除作動詞外,亦可作名詞。作名詞時,有較強的構詞能力,它所構成的詞的某些詞義和用法是值得注意的。例如crossroad是“交叉路”或“橫馬路”,而crossroads卻是“十字路”或“十字路口”,它的前面可以用a,但-s不能丟掉。如:
            The accident took place at a crossroads.
            車禍發生在十字路口。
            They drive across the plain by way of a crossroad leading to the highway.
            他們沿著一條通往公路的交叉路駕車橫過平原。
            cross-reference是“前后參照”、“互見條目”的意思,專指同一書刊中前后互相參閱的說明。例:
            In this book cross-references are shown in capital letters.
            在本書中,前后參照的互見條目用大寫字母表示。
            crossing是“渡口”、“橫道線”或“(鐵路與公路的)交叉點”。如:
            The Star Ferry Pier is a ferry crossing in central.
            天星碼頭是在中環的一個渡口。
            All care should stoP at the zebra crossing.
            所有車輛都要在斑馬線前停下。
            A bus ran into a train at the level/grade crossing.
            一輛公共汽車在平交點與火車相撞。?

            act as,act like
            乍然看來,act as和 act like是兩個同義短語,在涵義上無甚區別可言,其實不然。
            Act as的意思是“充當”、“擔任”,相當于 serve as,可與人或物詞如:doctor、director、interpreter、guide、coach、 teacher、go-between、furniture、tools等字搭配使用。as是連詞,引導一個省略了謂語的狀語從句。例:
            This herb can act as an antidote against snakebite.
            這種藥草可以用作蛇咬的解毒藥。
            Last summer she acted as a guide for tourists.
            去年夏天,她擔任旅游向導。
            This coin may act as a screwdriver.
            這枚硬幣可以充當螺絲起子用。
            Mr.Liu acted as group leader while Mr.Zhang was ill.
            張先生生病時,劉先生任組長。
            請注意,有時候,act for與act as的意義頗相近,但它們在表示概念方面互不相同。act as是“(臨時)充當”或“起…的作用”; act for則表示“代理”的涵義。請比較下一句和前述句:
            Mr.Liu acted for Mr.Zhang while,the latter was ill.
            張先生患病期間,劉先生代理他的工作。
            Act like的意思是“行為像”、“舉動像”,相當于英語的 to act in the manner of,它常與人或動物名詞連用。like是介詞,其后接賓語。例:
            That child acts like a grown-up.
            那個孩子的舉動像成年人一樣。
            Don’t act like a fool!
            別像傻瓜一般!
            His refusal of our offer acted like a wet blanket.
            他拒絕了我們的建議,真使我們掃興。
           ?。ㄗⅲ篴 wet blanket 作“令人掃興的事或人”。)?

            admit,admit of
            一般說來,admit表示“許入”、“進入”(allow somebody or something to enter)或“承認”(acknowledge)的意義;admit of則表示“容許”(allow of)或“容有”(leave room for)之意。例如:
            This ticket admits one person only.
            此券只準一人入場。
            I admitted him to the lecture.
            我準許他入內聽講。
            He has admitted the fact.
            他已承認此事。
            This matter admits of no delay.
            此事刻不容緩。
            This word admits of several interpretations.
            這個詞可作幾種解釋。
            Admit的主語既可以是物,也可以是人,而admit of 的主語只可以是沒有生命的事物。例如,我們不能說: I can’t admit of your doing it,而只能說:I can’t allow you to do it。又如,不可以說:He can admit of no question,而應該說:His veracity admits of no question(他的誠信是勿容置疑的)。
            值得注意的是,admittance和admission都是admit 的名詞,它們都有“準入”之意,但使用場合不同。一般說來,admittance用于直義,即指準許某人進入某一場所;admission則大都用于比喻意,指準許進入的權利、入場費或入會費而言。因此,“入場券”譯作admission ticket,不譯作admittance ticket?!叭绶枪?,不得擅進(非請勿進)”則譯作 No admittance except on business?,F將這兩個詞作一比較:
            They refused him admittance when he arrived.
            他抵達時他們拒絕他入場。
            They granted him admission.
            他門準許他入會。
            此外,admit用作解“承認”時,之后可以接動名詞或從句,但不能接動詞不定式。例如: He admits having seen the book或 He admits that he saw the book。但不可以說:He admits to have seen the book。
            在現代英語中,有時我們可以看到 admit to這么一個短語,其義相當于confess to (承認),例如:
            In spit of all the evidence against her,she refused to admit to the crime.
            雖然所有證據都對她不利,但是她拒絕承認犯了罪。
            有些西方學者認為,admit to 并不是地道的英語,最好避免使用。
            與之類似區別的詞語有 allow和allow of。前者的意思是“許可”(permit);后者的意思是“容有…余地”(leave room for)。它們的用法與 admit和 admit of相同。?

            advance, advancement
            Advance用作名詞時,很易和另一名詞advancement 混淆不清,因為這兩個詞都有“前進”、“進步”和“進展”之意。它們的區別如下:
            一般說來,advance含有自動的意味,advancement 則含有被動的意味。例如:advance of science是“科學的進步”; advancement of science則是“科學的被人推進”。從下列兩個例句,我們可以辨別出它們的區別:
            Discovering a cure for AIDS would be a major medical advance.
            發現治療艾滋病的方法將是醫學上的一大進展。
            We have made a program for the advancement of science.
            我們已制定了一個發展科學的規劃。
            通過上列例句的對比,我們可以聯想到 advance in rank 和 advancement in rank;advance in industy和advancement in industry;advance in society和advancement in society等語的涵義區別。
            在表示“行軍”或“向…行進”的意義時,只能用advance,不可以用advancement。例:
            They have done their best to resist the advance of the enemy.
            他們已盡力阻擋敵人向前推進。
            Road blocks were set up to obstruct the advance of the demonstrators.
            設置路障是要阻止示威人士前進。
            在某些固定的詞組里,例如 in advance、in advance of、be on the advance,只能用advance,不可以用advancement。如:
            Please pay the bill in advance.
            請先付賬。
            The plane reached Hong Kong ten minutes in advance of its scheduled time.
            飛機比預定的時間提早了十分鐘到達香港。
            Recently the new stocks are on the advance.
            最近新股看漲。
            advance一字除用作名詞和動詞(如 In recent days prices advanced rapidly。近日來,價格猛漲)之外,亦可用作形容詞。作形容詞時,其意為“預先的”、“在前的”。如:advance notice(預先通知);advance booking (預訂/預售(票));advance payment(預先付款);advance copy((發行前的)新書樣本); advance party of soldiers(先頭部隊)。
            值得注意的是,advanced也可用作形容詞,但其意為“先進的”、“高級的”。如:advanced ideas(進步的思想);advanced algebra(高等代數);advanced courses(高級課程)。?

            after, behind
            After用作介詞時,很易和另一介詞behind混淆不清,因為它們都表示“在…之后”的意思。它們的區別有以下幾點:
           ?。ㄒ唬┮话阏f來,after指時間的先后次序,意為“在…之后”(later in time than); behind指位置的前后,意為“在…后面”(in the rear of)。例如:
            I shall be free after ten o’clock.
            十點之后我有空。
            The national stadium is located behind the hill.
            國家運動場在山崗的后面。
           ?。ǘ゛fter常用以指順序,意為“跟在…之后”、“接著”、“接連”(in succession or next to in order); behind 則表示“隱匿在后”、“背著”或“遺留在后”之意。如:
            After you,please!
            您先請?。ǔ鲩T或進門時的客套用語)
            You should put the direct object after the indirect object.
            你應該把直接賓語放在間接賓語之后。
            The policemen are searching for the robbers door after door.
            警察正在挨家挨戶地搜查劫匪。
            Day after day and year after year…
            日復一日,年復一年……。
            Don’t stand behind the door.
            不要躲在門背后。
            Don’t speak evil of a man behind his back.
            不要在背后說人壞話。
            Who is behind the scenes?
            誰是幕后人?
            Those smugglers ran away and left no trace behind them.
            那些走私客逃走時沒有留下任何痕跡。
           ?。ㄈ┰谀承﹫龊舷?,after和behind可以互換使用,但涵義有所不同。如:
            Shut the door after you.(1)
            Shut the door behind you.(2)
           ?。?)句的意思是“隨手關門”,after含有離開與關門兩個動作的先后的意味;(2)句的意思是“關上你背后的門”,behind表示門的靜止狀態的意味,正因為如此,我們通常說:Don’t stand behind the door,而不說:Don’t stand after the door。
            值得注意的是,在另一些場合下,after和behind 在互換使用后,其意并無區別可言。如:
            John came in after Alice.
            John came in behind Alice.
            The dog ran after its master.
            The dog ran behind its master.
            Behind除作介詞外,尚可用作副詞、名詞和形容詞; after除作介詞外,還可用作副詞、連詞和形容詞,由于不屬本書探討范圍之內,這里就不贅述。?

            alive, living
            這兩個詞都表示“活著的”、“有生命的”(having life)意思,詞義相同,但用法有所不同。
            Alive是表語形容詞,放在verb“to be”之后,不能放在它所說明的名詞之前。例如我們只可以說 The old man is still alive。
            Living既可用作表語形容詞,又可用作定語形容詞,故可放在它所修飾的名詞之前。
            我們既可以說:
            English is a living language.
            也可以說:
            Is his father still living?
            就使用場合而言,alive大都用于人,有時用作比喻或強調時也用于物。例如:
            Given the chance to sing on stage,he is very much alive.
            有機會在臺上唱歌,他顯得很活躍。
            The bazaar was all alive by the time we arrived.
            我們到達時,墟市非常熱鬧。
            Living則人物共用(請參閱上面兩例)。
            就詞性而言,alive只能用作形容詞,不能作名詞;living既可作形容詞,又可作名詞。例:
            Many people were burnt alive in the conflagration that happened in a multi-storeyed building.
            在一幢多層大廈內發生的大火中,很多人被活活燒死。
            Our living standards are rising steadily.
            我們的生活水平在不斷提高。
            Those who enjoy a good living seldom understand the suffering of the poor.
            過著美好生活的人一般都不明白窮人所受之苦。
            在某些場合下,living和alive表示的涵義并不相同,盡管它們都用作表語。例如:
            At last we found him in a trap in the forest,still living but not alive.
            通過對比,可以看出,living之意是“活的”;alive 之意是“有氣息的”。這里的not alive表示人雖然還活著,但已“氣息奄奄”、“沒有生氣”了。
            Alive有時尚可表示“alert”“感覺到的”、“敏感的”涵義。如:
            He is alive to the imminent danger.
            他感覺到那迫在眉睫的危險。?

            alone, lone
            這一對詞都有“單獨”、“孤單”(having no other person or thing nearby)之意,但用法有所不同。
            就詞性而言,alone既可作形容詞,又可作副詞;而lone只能作形容詞,不能作副詞。例如:
            He is alone.(adj.)
            He live alone.(adv.)
            A lone bird flew past.(adj.)
            用作形容詞時,alone只能作表語;而lone一般只能作定語。例:
            I am alone.(不能說: I am an alone person)
            我獨居。
            She wants to make a lone flight.
            她想單獨飛行。
            在現代英語里,alone和lone跟lonely涵義不同,前二者只表示“單獨”,沒有感情色彩,但后者則表示“孤單、寂寞”的感受。例:
            Though I was alone in Hong Kong,I did not feel lonely.
            雖然我獨居香港,但是我并不感到寂寞。
            The lone traveller led a lonely life.
            那獨行客過著寂寞的人生。
            關于alone一詞,在使用時要注意幾點:
           ?。ㄒ唬゛lone是表語形容詞,因此,我們不能說:very alone,只可以說much alone或very much alone。
           ?。ǘ゛lone雖然作“單獨”、“孤單”解,但它并不一定用于表示貶義的場合,因為有些人生來就喜歡“孤單”和“清靜”,例如下句中的alone就是反映這個涵義:
            Leave me alone.
            不要打擾我。
           ?。ㄈ゛lone用在名詞或代詞之后可以表示“唯有”、“唯獨”之意。例:
            Jackson alone knows what happened.
            唯有杰克遜一個人知道出了什么事。
            You alone can help me in this task.
            只有你才能在這件事中幫助我。
           ?。ㄋ模﹍et alone是固定詞組,其義為“更不用說”、“不在話下”。例:
            He can speak Spanish,let alone English.
            他能說西班牙文,英語就更不在話下了。
            He can’t drive a car,let alone a truck.
            他連小汽車都不會開,更不用說開卡車了。
            由例句可見,let alone與to say nothing of同義,它們可互換使用。
          ?
            also, too
            這兩個詞都是副詞,又都表示“也是”的意思,但在修辭意味和使用場合上有所不同。它們的區別如下:
           ?。ㄒ唬┮话阏f來,also用于比較正式(formal)的場合,語氣比too莊重; too是慣熟(familiar)的用語,使用范圍較廣。
           ?。ǘ゛lso在句中的位置要緊靠動詞; too在句中的位置比較靈活,有時插入句中,前后用逗號分開,有時放在句末。
           ?。ㄈ﹖oo只能用在肯定句中,不可用于否定句內。在否定句中,只能用either;also則可以用在否定句中。
            下面請看例句:
            The Hong Kong Chief Executive also heads the university as Chancellor.
            香港行政長官也以(大學)校監身份領導大學。
            Reading books is learning,but application is also learning and the more important form of learning.
            讀書是學習,買踐也是學習,而且是更重要的學習。
            We have not heard such a thing.Also,we have never seen such a scene.
            我們沒有聽見過這種事情,我們也從來沒有見過這種場面。
            請注意,一般說來,also在句中的位置應緊靠動詞,但有時為了強調其意,也可以將它放在句首或句末。
            Here,too,the colon must be followed by a dash.
            這里也一樣,應當在冒號之后加破折號。
            Mary,too,can play the piano.
            瑪麗也會彈鋼琴。
            Could you speak Japanese?—Yes,and Spanish too.
            您會說日語嗎?——會的,還會說西班牙語哩。
            Also雖然和too同義,但前者大都用于書面語,后者大都用于口語。例:
            The lady washed the children and also gave them dinner.(書面語)
            The lady washed the children and gave them dinner too.(口語)
            在口語中,too還可以用 as well代替。
            有時候,also在句中的位置不同,句子的涵義也會跟著變化。例:
            John is also concerned in this matter.(1)
            John also is concerned in this matter.(2)
            John is concerned in this matter also.(3)
           ?。?)句的涵義是:John is concerned in this matter as well as that one.
           ?。?)句的涵義是:John is concerned in this matter,just as somebody else is.
           ?。?)句的涵義是:This matter is the last of many that have been mentioned.?

            amount, number
            這一對詞都能用作名詞和動詞,又都表示“數目”、“總數”之意,故很易混淆。
            它們之間的區別是,amount用于不可數名詞,表示“量”; number用于可數名詞,表示“數”。例:
            He has contributed a considerable amount of money to the Chinese University of Hong Kong.(amount為名詞)
            他捐了一筆為數可觀的錢給香港中文大學。
            Our expenditure amounts to fifty thousand dollars a month.(amount為動詞)
            我們每月的開支達五萬元。
            Every year the Hong Kong Book Fair draws a large number of visitors.(number為名詞)
            每一年香港的書展吸引了大量的觀眾。
            Today more than 30,000 students are enrolled in the polytechnic.
            The full-time students in our department number over 3,500.(number為動詞)
            現在理工學院有三萬多名學生;我們系里全日制的學生已超過三千五百名。
            Amount除作“數量”、“總額”解外,亦可表示“價值”之意。例:
            Your information is of little amount.(名詞)
            你的情報沒有什么價值。
            It is unlikely that the forthcoming talks will amount to very much.(動詞)
            看來即將舉行的會談不會有多大意義。
            與amount一詞搭配使用的字很多,常用的有:respectable~(相當大的數量); trifling~(微不足道的數額); approved~(核準的數額); fixed~(固定的數額); vast~(大量);average~(平均數);aggregate~(總額);required~(所需數); proper~(適量)。
            與number搭配的形容詞亦不少,常見的有:round ~(整數);serial~(編號); small~(為數不多);astonishing~(數目驚人); even~(偶數); odd~(奇數); high~(大數);low~(小數); huge(immense)~(巨大的數量);limited~(有限的數目);maximum~(最大量); minimum~(最小量);cardinal~(基數);ordinal~(序數);atomic~(原子序數)。?

            another,the other
            這兩個詞都表示“另一個”的意思,但涵義和使用場合不同。Another是指不定數目中的“另一個”;the other是指兩個人或兩樣事物中的“另一個”。例:
            Have another piece of cake.
            再吃一塊餅吧。
            Please fatch another cup for me.
            請替我另拿一個杯子來。
            That’s quite another matter.
            那完全是另一回事。
            Both my uncles are abroad,one in Paris and the other in New York.
            我的兩個叔叔都在國外,一個在巴黎,另一個在紐約。
            One of them is yours;the other is mine.
            一個是你的,另一個是我的。
            值得注意的是,當我們在兩樣事物中任選一樣時,應用one or the other;在三樣或三樣以上任選一樣時,應用 one or other或one or another。
            在someone,somehow,somewhere等字后,只能用other,不能用another。例:
            We’ll have to do it somehow or other.
            在下列短語中,other也不能改作another:
            some kind or other
            some way or other?
            反之,用one時,則用another,例如:one way or another。在only之后,指唯一的就用one或other而不用another。
            This is the only one/other stile to cross before we reach the wood.
            當others和some對比使用在一個句子中,others失去“其他的”意義,而是表示“有的”或“有些”之義,相當于句中前面的some。例如:
            Some like this,others like that.
            有些人喜歡這個,自些人喜歡那個。
            Some cleaned the blackboards,others mopped the floor.
            有些人擦黑板,有些人拖地板。?

            ante-,anti-
            這一對前綴的意義并不相同。ante- 是拉丁前綴,其意為“前面”、“在…之前”或“早于”(in front of or earlier than)。它既可以指地點,也可以指時間。例如:
            anteroom 前廳;前房
            antenuptial 婚前的
            antebellum 戰前的
            antedate 先期;早日
            antenatal 出生前的/產前的
            antediluvian 太古的;大洪水前的
            antemeridiem(a.m.) 上午的;午前的
            Anti- 是希臘前綴,意為“反對”、“反面”(opposed to or the reverse of)。它加于名詞和形容詞之前。例如:
            Anti-Japanese War 抗日戰爭
            anticlockwise 反時針方向
            anti-militarist 反軍國主義者
            anti-aircraft gun 高射炮
            anti-trade wind 反季候風
            antichrist 反基督者或偽基督
            anticlimax 戲劇高潮后的緩和;修辭學里
            的“漸降法”
            Anti-也可以用在醫學和化學術語里。例如:
            antidote 解毒藥
            antiseptic 防腐劑/消毒藥
            antibiotics 抗生素
            anti-freezing liquid 防凍液
            antibody 抗體;抗毒素
            在英語中,以ante-,anti- 作為前綴的詞不勝枚舉,下面也是一些常用的詞:
            antecedent 先行詞
            antechamber 前廳
            antecessor 祖先;發起人
            antemortem 死前的
            antibiotics 抗菌素
            anticyclone 逆旋風
            anti-everything 樣樣都反對的
            antigas kit 防毒裝備
            anti-icer 防止結冰的裝置
            antifriction 摩擦減少劑
            antiphlogistine 消炎劑,消腫劑
            請注意,anticipate的意思是“預期”、“預料”,這里的anti-并不表示“反對”之意,而是“預先”的意思。因此,我們說,這里的anti-等于ante-,是ante- 的變體(variant)。?

            anyway, any way
            這一對詞的意思并不一樣。anyway和anyhow同義,但前者多用于美國英語,后者多用于英國英語。anyway 在句中用作副詞和連接詞,義:“無論如何”、“不管怎樣”,相當于 in any case和at any rate。例:
            Anyway,we can try.
            不管怎樣,我們可以試試看。
            I will not change my mind anyway.
            無論如何,我不愿意改變我的宗旨。
            “I can give you a lift if you wait”—“No,I’ll walk Thanks,anyway.”
            “如果你等一下,我可以駕我的車送你去?!薄安挥昧?,我步行好了。謝謝你(盡管我不坐你的車)!”。
            Any way的意思是“任何方法”、“任何方式”,way 是名詞,any是修飾它的定語。例:
            If there is any way in which you can help me tide over the difficulties,let me know.
            如果你有什么辦法幫助我度過難關,請告訴我。
            He could not find the way to the village in any way.
            他怎么也找不到那條通向村莊的馬路。
            I cannot manage it any way.
            我無法做到此事。
            在上面第一個例句中,any way是用作條件狀語從句的主語;在第二個例句中,any way作介詞 in的賓語;在第三個例句中,any way用作狀語,修飾謂語動詞 cannot manage。?

            as well as,as well
            這一對短語僅差一字之微,意義相近,故很易引起混淆。
            作為習語用作介詞時,as well as的涵義是“還有”、“不但…而且…”。值得注意的是,在A as well as B的結構里,語意的重點在 A,不在 B。因此,“He can speak Spanish as well as English.”的譯文應該是:“他不但會說英語,而且會講西班牙語”,決不能譯作:“他不但會說西班牙語,而且會講英語”。如果這樣翻譯,就是本末倒置了。as well as和 not only… but also…同義,但前者的語意重點和后者的語意重點恰好顛倒。
            如果 as well as用作連詞引出比較從句,其義為“和…一樣好”。因此,“He speaks Spanish as well as English.”應譯作:“他說西班牙語像說英語一樣好”。語意的重點依舊在前部,不在后半部。
            請注意 as well as以下的用法:
            She called on you as well as I.
            不但我來看你,她也拜訪了你。
            She called on you as well as me.
            她不但拜訪了我,也拜訪了你。
            在下列句中,as well as表示“像…一樣”的涵義:
            She as well as you is an English teacher.
            她像你一樣也是英文教師。
            這里的謂語動詞用is,不用are,因為句中的主語是she,不是she和you。
            As well是副詞短語,其義為“也”,相當于too,它一般放在句末,有時和連詞and或but搭配使用。例:
            He is a worker,and a poet as well.
            他是工人,但也是詩人。
            China possesses enormous quantities of coal and is rich in other minerals as well.
            中國擁有大量煤炭,其他的礦藏也很豐富。
            Mr.Liu can speak English,but he can speak Cantonese as well.
            劉先生會說英語,但他也能講廣東話。
          ????? asleep, sleeping
          ????? 這兩個詞都表示“入睡”、“睡著”的意思,但用法各異,主要區別有以下幾點:
          (一)asleep是表語形容詞,在句中放在verb“tobe”之后;它不能放在名詞之前,例如我們不可以說:Look at the asleep baby,應把asleep改為sleeping。例:
          She was fast asleep;I couldn’t wake her up.她睡得很熟,我喊不醒她。
          The old man has fallen asleep.那個老人睡著了。
          請注意,be asleep是指“睡著”的狀態,如果表示“入睡”的意味,就要用fall asleep。上面兩個例句反映了這個區別。
          (二)sleeping 是定語形容詞,它放在它所修飾的名詞之前,如the sleeping baby。如果放在 verb“to be”之后(He is sleeping),sleeping不是形容詞,而是動詞,is sleeping 是現在進行時。例:
          Who is that sleeping man?那個在睡覺的人是誰?
          Keep an eye on the sleeping baby.照看好那個在睡覺的嬰孩。
          Let sleeping dogs lie.莫惹事生非。
          sleeping一詞有構詞能力,它能和另一些詞構成復合名詞。如:sleeping-bag(睡袋);sleeping-car(臥車);sleeping-pill(安眠藥);sleeping-sickness(昏睡癥);sleeping-partner((不參與經營的)匿名合伙人)。
          Sleeping有一近義詞,即sleepy。sleepy既可作表語,又可作定語。作表語時,義:“困倦”、“想睡覺”,用作定語時,義:“貪睡”、“寂靜的”。例:
          The children fell sleepy;put them to bed.孩子們困了,把他們放到床上睡吧。
          John is a sleepyhead.約翰是個貪睡的人。
          Here are the outskirts/suburbs of Kowloon.Do you like this sleepy valley?
          這里是九龍的郊區。你喜歡這寂靜的山谷嗎??

          at ease,with ease
          這兩個介詞短語的詞義范圍和使用場合并不相同。at ease的意思是“安逸地”、“安心地”、“自在地”(feeling confident or relaxed),其反義短語為ill at ease;with ease的意思是“輕松地”、“容易地”(easily or without difficulty)。
          就使用場合而言,at ease即可作表語,亦可作狀語;with ease 只能用作狀語。例:
          The old couple are now quite at ease as their son is out of danger.
          這一對老夫妻現在可安心了,因為他們的兒子已經脫離危險。
          With good social security,the aged can live at ease.有好的社會保障,老年人都過得很安逸。
          Her promise of support set my mind at ease.她答應支持我,就使我放心了。
          I don’t know why he is ill at ease.我不知道為什么他心神不寧。
          They fulfilled the task with ease.他們輕松地完成了任務。
          Our football team gained the day with ease.我們的足球隊很輕松地就贏了這場球。
          Every day we marched twenty miles with ease.每天我們毫不費力地行進二十英里。
          注:stand at ease是軍事術語,義“稍息”;take one’s ease是“休息”或“無拘無束”。例:
          The soldiers are standing at ease now.士兵們現在在立正稍息。
          We are now taking our ease.我們現在是優哉游哉。
          Please sit and take your ease while enjoying a cup of coffee.請坐下來舒舒服服地喝杯咖啡。?

          at heart,by heart
          這一組短語的涵義也各不相同。
          At heart 的意思是“在心里”、“心底里”或“本質上”(from the heart,from the bottom of one’s heart or essentially)。by heart 的意思是“背誦”、“熟記”(by rote;to learn so well that one can remember it perfectly)。請看下面例句:
          That socialite is a rascal at heart.那個知名人士實質上是個壞蛋。
          A councillor should have the collective interest of society at heart.議員應當關心大眾的利益。
          At heart,Mr.Lin does not approve your proposal.林先生的心里并不贊同你的建議。
          Mr.Wang looks stem,but he is kind at heart.王先生看來嚴肅,但買質上他很仁慈。
          I know this poem by heart.我熟讀/我能背誦這首詩。
          I don’t see the point of learning by heart all the dates in the history book!
          我真不明白為什么要把歷史書里所有的日期都要記下來!
          請注意下列短語的意思:(跟前例 have something at heart相近)
          in one’s heart of hearts 在內心深處
          take something to heart 認真考慮/關注某事
          set one’s heart on something 決心做/得到某事/物
          cut(or touch)sb to the heart 觸及某人痛處
          one’s heart is in something 把整個心放在某事上?

          at last,at length
          這一對短語都有“終于”、“最后”的意思,但涵義和使用場合有所不同。
          At length 這個詞組共有三個意義: (1)長時間地。例如:He spoke at(great)length.(2)詳細地。例如:They treated the subject at length.(3)終于;最后。例:After flying for ten hours,they got to San Francisco at length.
          作第三種意義使用時,at length與at last同義,但它們的內涵卻有所不同。當人們做某事時,遇到了困難,經過奮斗,最后得以完成,在這種場合,我們用at last。如果在做的過程中,經歷了很長的時間才得以完成,這時候,不論困難大小,都可用at length表示。為此,我們說,at last強調的是“經過努力奮斗”;at length 強調的是“經歷很長的時間”。通過下列例句的對比,不難看出它們之間的區別:
          Before they climbed down the side of the cliff,they met with many obstacles,but they surmounted them at last.從懸崖的側面爬下來之前,他們遇到了許多障礙,但終于把它們克服了。
          In spite of every obstacle,they have at last arrived at the destination.
          盡管障礙很多,他們終于到達了目的地。
          After a voyage of five months,they at length arrived safe and sound.經過五個月的航行,他們終于安全抵達。
          請注意,用length構成的介詞短語很多,常見的有:
          Hong Kong Exhibition Centre measures 200 metres in length.香港展覽中心長達二百公尺。
          They discussed this problem at great length.他們非常詳細地討論了這個問題。
          Yesterday I had my picture taken at the studio at full length.昨天我在照相館拍了一張全身照。
          They travelled through the length and breadth of the country.他們走遍全國。?

          at(the)least,not(in)the least
          這一對短語的涵義有很大的差異。
          At least的意思是“至少”(指數量或程度上)也可解作“反正就是…”。它與 at the least,at the very least同義,可互換使用,但后兩者有強調意味,遠不及前者用得普遍。
          下面請看例句:
          The total enrolment of the university in the academic year 1991-1992 was at least 10,000,including undergraduate and postgraduate students.
          在1991-1992學年期間,該大學至少有一萬名大學生,包括本科大學生和研究主。
          Even if you cannot help him,you can give him encouragement at least.就算你未能幫助他,至少你可以鼓勵他。
          Whether you like it or not,at the very least,this is reality.不管你是否喜歡,反正這是個現實。
          Not the least 的意思是“毫不”、“一點也不”(by no means),也可寫作 not in the least。但后者一般不用作定語?,F今,后者更常見。
          Are you cold?—Not(in)the least.你冷嗎?—一點也不冷。
          Spanish has not the least interest for them.(作定語,沒有in)他們劉西班牙語毫不感興趣。
          (此句亦可改寫為:They do not take the least interest in Spanish)
          You shouldn’t relax your vigilance(in)the least.你們不能絲毫放松警惕。
          另一方面,not least義為“尤其是,特別是”:
          That film caused public revulsion, not least among the education circles.
          該電影引起公憤,特別是教育界的深惡。
          短語 least of all的涵義是“最不”。例:That’s the thing I like least of all.(這是我最不喜歡的東西)。?

          at the end of,by the end of
          這一對短語的意思都是“在…的末了”、“在…的一端”,意義上相似,但使用場合有所不同。
          一般說來,at the end of用于表示具體事物或場所的場合,它也可以用來表示比喻意。例:
          The school is situated at the end of the street.該校位于這條街的盡頭。
          We’ll have an exam in English at the end of January.一月底我們要參加英語考試。
          They were at the end of their patience.他們忍無可忍。
          He is at the end of his wits.他智窮才盡,束手無策。
          By the end of用于表示時間的場合,往往含有“不遲于”的意味。值得注意的是,at the end of亦可用于表示時間的場合(見上面第二個例句),但其義和by the end of有所不同。試對比下面兩例:
          at the end of January一月底(指一月份的最后一天)
          by the end of January一月底之前(指一月份結束前的幾天)
          We are to complete the task by the end of the year.年底之前我們必須完成此項任務。
          Their communication is at an end.他們的交往到此為止。
          短語 in the end的涵義是“終于”、“最后”,其義相當于 at last。例:
          I’m sure everything will turn out satisfactory in the end.我確信,最后一切都會令人滿意的。
          In the end things will mend.船到橋頭自會直。?

          await,wait
          這兩個詞都是動詞,又都有“期待”、“等候”之意,但用法有所不同,它們的區別如下:
          (一)await是及物動詞,后面直接接賓語;wait雖然也可用作及物動詞,但在現代英語中,一般作不及物動詞用,與for,to,till,until等詞連用。
          (二)await的賓語大都是抽象名詞,如:decision,reply,arrival,announcement,return等;wait for的賓語一般是人或事物。
          The judge awaits the coroner’s inquest before giving a verdict.法官在作裁決前等待驗尸官的調查。
          I have been waiting for her for an hour at the bus stop.我在公共車站等候她已一小時了。
          (三)await之后接動名詞;wait之后接動詞不定式。例如:
          We shall await hearing further from them.
          We shall wait to hear further from them.我們在靜候他們進一步的消息。
          (四)await多用于書面語;wait 多用于口語。如:
          This plan awaits the approval of the board of directors.這項計劃有待董事局批準。
          I have been waiting here for a long time.我已在這里等了好久了。
          (五)wait 除作動詞外,還可用作名詞。例:
          I had a long wait for the train.我等火車等了好久。
          They pursue a policy of wait and see.他們采取等待和觀望的政策。
          如上所述,wait在特定情況下也可以用作及物動詞,例如:to wait your turn;to wait one’s opportunity。
          請注意下列句子中await和wait的使用場合:
          We await (or wait for)your reply.
          We wait for(不能用await)you to reply.
          I shall wait to bring her home.(不能用await)
          I await (or wait for)your ruling on the matter with some impatience.
          當await的主語是沒有生命的事物而賓語是人時,await表示 be in store或lie in wait for之意。如:
          On arriving at the guest house,he found a telegram awaiting him.
          Little did he realize what a surprise awaited him at home.
          A hearty welcome will await you.
          請注意,Time and tide wait(s)for no man(歲月不待人)的wait既可以加s,亦可不加s。?

          award,reward
          這兩個詞都可以用作名詞和動詞,作名詞時,意義相近,但不是同義詞。
          作名詞時,award的意思是“獎品”、“獎金”,其義與prize近似,兩者都指因為作出杰出成就而受獎。例:
          The Olympic winner received a gold medal as an award.
          He won the second award of $ 2,000.
          而reward作名詞時,其意為“賞金”、“酬金”或一些非金錢的報酬。例:
          We will offer a reward of ten thousand dollars for information about the case.
          如果有人提供有關案件的情報,我們愿意出一萬元賞金。
          We don’t expect substantial rewards.我們并不期望得到優厚的報酬。
          用作動詞時,award的意思是“授與”、“頒發”、“判給”;reward則表示“報答”、“酬謝”之意。例:
          He was awarded the first prize for Outstanding Industrial Design.他獲杰出工業設計一等獎。
          We judge awarded him twenty thousand dollars as damages.法官判給他二萬元作為賠償費。
          You should reward them according to their deserts.你應該對他們論功行賞。
          Is that how you reward me for my help?你就是這樣來報答我給你的幫助嗎?
          reward也可以用于比喻意。例:
          I would feel amply rewarded if my book—A Study of English Twins—could be of some help to the readers.
          如果我的書《英語學生詞語之研究》對讀者有所幫助的話,我就感到心滿意足了。?

          be ashamed for,be ashamed of
          這一對形容詞短語的涵義并不相同。
          To be ashamed for 的意思是“為…(一般指外在的人或事物,如他人)而感到羞恥”;to be ashamed of的意思是“由于…(一般指內在的人或事物,如自己)而感到羞恥”。例:
          I’m ashamed for you.我為你感到羞恥。
          I’m ashamed of you.我以你為恥。
          I felt ashamed for the callousness of the government in tackling land speculation.
          對于政府處理地產投機態度麻木不仁,我引以為恥。
          Are you ashamed of doing such a thing?你做這樣的事感到羞恥嗎?
          其他因搭配介詞不同而含義及用法改變的詞語有:
          He is considerate of other people’s feelings.他能體諒別人的感情。
          He is considerate to old people.他對老年人很體貼。
          I’m anxious for a change.我渴望改變一下環境。
          I’m anxious about his health.我為他的健康而擔憂。
          She did it of herself.她自愿去做此事。
          She did it by herself.她獨立去做此事。
          They are suffering for their country.他們正在為國受苦。
          They are suffering from the war.他們由于戰爭而在受難。?

          be going to,will
          Be going to在表示“將要”的意味時,很容易和will混淆不清。
          試看下面的對話:
          A:The detergent has been used up.洗潔精已用光了。
          B:I’m going to get some today.C:I’ll get some today.
          乍然看來,乙和丙的答話的意思是一樣的,都是:“今天我要去買些”,其實不然。乙用 am going to get回答甲,其言外之意是:“在甲講洗潔精用完這句話之前,他早已心中有數,并且早就有去買洗潔精的打算”。丙用will get來回答,表示:“事前并不知道洗潔精已用完,原先也沒有打算去買,直等到甲講了之后,他才決定去買”。
          通過上面的例句,我們可以知道下列對話中乙、丙的回答的不同涵義了:
          A:Where is my dictionary?
          B:I’m going to get it for you.
          C:I’ll get it for you.
          此外,be going to和will還有下列的區別:
          (一)be going to表示即將發生的動作;will表示將來發生的事情,不一定是最近期間之事。例:
          She told him she was going to quit the job.她告訴他,她即將辭職不干。
          She will go to Australia next year.她明年要去澳洲。
          (二) be going to可以用以表示某人打算做某事;will則用以敘述某件將要發生之事。前者含有主觀意愿;后者只是客觀的敘述。例:
          He is not going to be made a scapegoat.他不會去做替罪羊。
          He will not become a scapegoat.他不會做替罪羊。
          (三)在表示按計劃或安排要發生的動作時,可以用be going to;will只表示單純的將來,并無按規定或計劃之意。例:
          The railway is going to be open on October 1.這條鐵路將于十月一日通車。
          This railway will be electrified when there is a need.有需要時,這條鐵路將改為電氣化。?

          Be off,to be off
          這兩個短語的涵義并不相同。
          Be off!的意思是“走開!”、“滾開!”,相當于英語的Be gone!或Get away!例:
          Be off! you wretch!滾開!你這個卑鄙的家伙!
          Be off! or I’ll call the police.你出去,否則我要報警啦。
          Be off!亦可寫作 Be off with you!或 Off with you!這三種形式可互換使用。
          To be off的涵義較多,有“離去”、“出發”、“脫離”、“暫?!?、“中斷”、“取消”等義。例:
          I must be off.(=I must leave now.)我該走了。
          We are off?。ǎ絆ff we go?。┪覀兂霭l了!
          值得注意的是,We are off!和Off we go!可根據不同的場合和上下文,表達不同的時間概念。它們能表示We have started、We are starting和We are about to start等義。同樣,They are off to Macau根據不同的場合,可分別譯作:“他們已去澳門”、“他們正在動身去澳門”和“他們將要去澳門”。
          Her shoes are off!她把鞋脫了!
          The electricity(water or gas)is off!斷電(水或煤氣)啦!
          Their engagement is off.他們的婚約取消了。
          除上列各義外,to be off還可用以表述下列意思:
          We are off every Wednesday.我們每星期三休息。
          She sounds off on the telephone.談電話時她有點不客氣/不自然/不對勁。
          All books have 20% off.所有的書籍均八折出售。
          This fish is slightly off.這魚有點不新鮮。
          The motor is off.  馬達停了。
          To be off 還可用在某些固定的說法里。如:
          to be off with the old love and on with the new(另找新歡)?

          believe,believe in
          這一對詞語都表示“相信不疑”的意思,但詞意有細微的區別。
          Believe表示“相信”、“信以為真”(to accept as true)之意,它是及物動詞,其后直接跟賓語。例:
          Do you believe his reports?你相信他的報告嗎?
          I could hardly believe my eyes.我幾乎不能相信自己的眼睛。
          In ancient times it was believed that the earth was flat.古時候,人們認為地球是扁平的。
          Believe in則表示“信仰”、“信任”(to have faith in somebody or something)之意。其后的常用搭配語為:有關宗教、理論、原則、概念及可信任之人,如:a religion、ghosts、 fairies、 a theory、 a friend等詞;例中的believe為不及物動詞。如:
          We do not believe in ghosts.我們不信鬼神。
          He believes in getting plenty of exercise.他相信多鍛煉身體就會有好處。
          In the days of the French Revolution,people believed in liberty,equality and fraternity.
          法國大革命時代的人們信奉自由、平等及博愛。
          現在試比較下列兩語的不同涵義:
          I believe him.(=I believe what he says)我相信他(的話)。
          I believe in him.(=I trust him )我相信他是一個可以信得過的人。(即:我信任他)
          在英美人的談話中,經??梢月牭竭@么一句口頭禪——Believe me:這是一個用以表示希望對方相信自己談話的口頭語,它相當于I bet或 Take my word for it。例:
          Believe me,you will get well very soon.你一定會很快就恢復健康的。
          Believe me 可以根據不同的場合,譯作“真的”、“我不騙你”、“一定會”或“請相信”。?

          borrow,lend
          這一對動詞都是“借”、“借用”的意思,但使用場合不同。
          Borrow是“借他人的東西以暫時使用”,表示“從(問)…借”之意,故譯“借入”;其搭配介詞為from。例:
          May I borrow your car?我可以借你的汽車用一下嗎?
          Did you borrow money from him ?你問他借過錢嗎?
          Some people are good at borrowing but had at giving back.有些人很會借東西,但很少歸還。
          Japanese has borrowed heavily from Chinese.日語從漢語借用了大量的詞匯。
          Lend是“將自己的東西暫時借給別人使用”,表示“借給……”之意,故譯“借出”;其搭配介詞為to。例:
          Will you lend me your car?你可否把汽車借給我?
          I’m sorry.I’ve already lent my car to Mr.Wang.對不起,我已經把我的汽車借給王先生了。
          在某些場合下,“lend…to”可以表示“給予”、“賦予”之意。例:
          A fireplace lends coziness to a room.壁爐給房間帶來溫暖舒適之感。
          A becoming dress lends charm to a lady.合身的服裝會給女士增添魅力。
          The rural environment lent itself to the restoration of his health.
          鄉村的環境有助于他恢復健康。
          Loan與lend同義,前者大都用于美國,后者大多用于英國:
          He loaned/lend me all the antiques for exhibition.他借給我全部古董作為展覽之用。
          Loan亦可用作名詞,如:make a loan(借出);pay off(repay)a loan(償清或償還借款)。例:
          He obtained cheap loans from the bank.他從銀行獲得低息貸款。?

          breath,breathe
          這兩個詞都是表示“呼吸”的意思,但詞性和讀音不同。 breath/breI是名詞; breathe/briJ/是動詞。初學英語的人容易將breathe的e丟掉,以致與breath混淆不清。
          請看下面例句:
          After we had climbed to the top of the hill,we stopped to gather breath.我們爬到山頂后便停下來歇口氣。
          Only in the countryside can we have a breath of fresh air.只有在郊野我們才能呼吸到新鮮的空氣。
          He has run himself out of breath.他跑得上氣不接下氣。
          The old lady breathed her last this morning.老太太今天早上斷氣了。
          In an attack of asthma,she breathed hard.哮喘發作,她感到呼吸困難。
          It’s healthy to breathe deeply in the morning早上作深呼吸對身體有益。
          請注意,在下列例句內,breathe和 take a breath不能互換使用,因為它們表達的涵義有所不同:
          We breathe in order to live.為了生存,我們要呼吸。
          We paused to take a breath我們停下來喘了一口氣。?

          bring,take,carry,fetch
          這四個詞都是動詞,都含有“帶”或“拿”的意思,但使用場合各不相同。
          Bring作“帶來”、“拿來”解; take是bring的對語,作“帶去”、“拿去”解。例:
          Next year you may bring your family over from England.明年你可以把你的家屬從英國帶來。
          Why don’t you bring your girl friend to the party?你為什么不把你的女友帶來參加宴會?
          Next time don’t forget to brig me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了把一份您的作品帶給我。
          Please take these books to the library for me.請把這些書替我帶到圖書館去。
          Take the box away,please.請把盒子拿走。
          Carry表示“運載”、“攜帶”之意,運送的方式很多,可以用車、船,也可以用手甚至用頭;fetch則表示“去拿來”(go and bring)的意思。例:
          They are carrying some paintings to the art gallery.他們正在把一些畫帶到藝術館去。
          This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.這輛巴士規定乘載一百人。
          Please fetch me the documents in that room.請到那間房間去把那些文件拿來給我。
          Please wait a minute.He’s just gone out to fetch some water.請等一會兒。他剛出去打水。
          現將bring,take和fetch用在一個句中,以便區別:
          Take that box and bring it with you,or if it is too heavy for you tocarry it,I’ll send Joe to fetch it.
          請注意,bring之后可以接不定式和動名詞,如:
          You will never bring me to admit it.或 You will never bring me to admitting it.
          在這種場合下,英美人用不定式的居多。bring在這兩句中表示 cause someone to do something之意(使某人做某事)。

          相似詞語辨析exceptionable,exceptional(8)

          相似詞語辨析

          able, capable

            這一對詞都是形容詞,又都含有“能夠”、“能干”之意,但涵義和使用場合有所不同,大致有如下幾點區別:

           ?。ㄒ唬┰谟米鞫ㄕZ表示“能干的”意味時,able所描述的范圍較概括,capable所描述的范圍較專注,因為前者指某人聰明能干,有多才多藝的概括涵義;后者僅指具有應付某一特指工作要求的能力。例:

            She is an able teacher

            她是個能干的教師。

            She is a capable teacher.

            她是個能勝任工作的教師。

           ?。ǘ゛ble指“能夠”,是一時之現象;capable常用以指“能力”,是經常的現象。如:

            I shall not be able to come to the office tomorrow.

            明天我不能到辦公室來(指由于某種原因而暫時不能來)。

            She is incapable of manual labour.

            她不能從事體力勞動(指由于某種長期或經常的原因,例如患病而不能勞動)。

           ?。ㄈ┲改橙四茏髂呈聲r,able之后接動詞不定式,capable之后接介詞of。例如:

            We are able to get back to town before dark.

            我們能夠天黑之前趕回市區。

            They are not capable of doing the work.

            他們沒有能力做這件工作。

           ?。ㄋ模ヽapable除表示“有能力的”意味外,還可用以表示“有可能的”涵義,able則沒有這個用法。如:

            The situation is capable of improvement.

            此情況有可能好轉。

            That oil tanker is capable of being restored.

            那艘油輪有可能修好。

            請注意,下列句中的able是用錯了,應改為capable:

            This book is able to be translated.(錯)

            This book is capable of being translated.(對)

            That law is able to be evaded.(錯)

            That law is capable of being evaded.(對)

           ?。ㄎ澹?able 一般用作正面意義,指好人好事;capable 則是中性詞,既可指好事,亦可指壞事,例如在下例中,capable of anything是表示“任何壞事都做得出來”之意:

            That guy is capable of anything!

            那家伙什么勾當都會干得出來!

           ?。?able的反義詞是unable;capable的反義詞是incapable。另一點值得注意的是,able的名詞是 ability,義:“能力”(the power to do);capable的名詞是capability 或 capacity,前者義:“具有從事某事的能力”;后者義:“容量”或“受容力”。需要在此指出的是,ability是可以通過練習或鍛煉獲得的,而capability則是固有的能力,它與練習或鍛煉無關。通過下列例句的對比,我們不難區分其義蘊:

            I do not doubt his ability to do the work.

            He has the capability to benefit from university education.

            第一句的ability是指通過訓練或工作磨煉而獲得的“能力”;第二句的capability是指天賦之才,與后天無關。

            according as,according to

            這兩個詞組雖然相似,但它們的結構和使用場合并不相同。according to表示“根據”、“按照”;而according as表示“視乎”,有depending及according to whether的意味。

            According as是連詞詞組,其后接從句;according to 是介詞短語,其后接名詞。例:

            The thermometer rises or falls according to the high or low temperature.

            寒暑表根據氣溫的高低而升降。

            They will be praised or blamed according as their work is good or bad.

            給他們的賞罰將視乎他們工作的好壞來決定。

            應當在此指出,在現代英語中,according as的句型結構已很少有人使用,正如 Bergen Evans和 Cornelia Evans在A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage 中指出的那樣:“This construction is not often heard today”。

            下面是according to的例句:

            According to the weather report,we shall have cold weather next week.

            根據天氣報告,下星期天氣將要轉冷。

            You should act according to circumstances.你們要隨機應變。

            According to有個同義短語,即 in accordance with,但它們的涵義有細微的區別,前者強調“根據…所言”,后者則強調“與…要一致”。另外 in accordance with多用于正式場合,例如表示與一些原則、規律一致。例:

            According to police report,five luxury cars were stolen in Kowloon yesterday.

            根據警方報告,昨天在九龍有五輛豪華汽車失竊。

            We must proceed in accordance with the rules.

            我們必須按照規章辦事。

            That sentence is not in accordance with the rules of grammar.

            那個句子不符合語法規則。

            請注意,in accordance with 既可引導 adverbial phrase,又可引導adjectival phrase作verb“to be”的補語(見上面 in accordance with的第一和第二個例句);according to則不能。例如,我們不能說:

            The news is according to Hong Kong"s broadcasting station.(錯)

            另一點需要補充說明的是,in accord with 和 in accordance with同義,它們可以互換使用,但前者遠不及后者用得普遍。英國學者F.T.Wood認為,我們最好在強凋“與…一致”(agreement)的時候,用in accord with;在強調“服從”或“遵照執行”(obeying or following)的涵義時,用 in accordance with。例如:

            What he has done is not in accord with your instructions.

            In accordance with your instructions we have suspended work on the heating apparatus.

            across, cross

            這兩個詞都是表示“橫越”、“渡過”之意,在拼寫上僅差一字之微,故很易混淆。它們的區別在于詞性和使用場合有所不同。across是介詞;cross是動詞。

            下面請看例句:

            My house is across the harbour,in the vicinity of the Kowloon Park.

            我的家在海港的對岸,九龍公園附近。

            They live across the Central Plaza.

            他們住在中央廣場的對面。

            Everyone shouts“kill it!”when a rat is seen to run across the street.

            老鼠過街,人人喊打。

            He has crossed the border into another territory.

            他已越過邊界進入別國的領土。

            Many steel arch bridges cross the Mississippi in its lower reaches.

            在密西西比河的下游許多拱形鐵僑橫跨河面。

            They have crossed over to Japan.

            他們已東渡去日本了。

            coss除作動詞外,亦可作名詞。作名詞時,有較強的構詞能力,它所構成的詞的某些詞義和用法是值得注意的。例如crossroad是“交叉路”或“橫馬路”,而crossroads卻是“十字路”或“十字路口”,它的前面可以用a,但-s不能丟掉。如:

            The accident took place at a crossroads.

            車禍發生在十字路口。

            They drive across the plain by way of a crossroad leading to the highway.

            他們沿著一條通往公路的交叉路駕車橫過平原。

            cross-reference是“前后參照”、“互見條目”的意思,專指同一書刊中前后互相參閱的說明。例:

            In this book cross-references are shown in capital letters.

            在本書中,前后參照的互見條目用大寫字母表示。

            crossing是“渡口”、“橫道線”或“(鐵路與公路的)交叉點”。如:

            The Star Ferry Pier is a ferry crossing in central.

            天星碼頭是在中環的一個渡口。

            All care should stoP at the zebra crossing.

            所有車輛都要在斑馬線前停下。

            A bus ran into a train at the level/grade crossing.

            一輛公共汽車在平交點與火車相撞。

            act as,act like

            乍然看來,act as和 act like是兩個同義短語,在涵義上無甚區別可言,其實不然。

            Act as的意思是“充當”、“擔任”,相當于 serve as,可與人或物詞如:doctor、director、interpreter、guide、coach、 teacher、go-between、furniture、tools等字搭配使用。as是連詞,引導一個省略了謂語的狀語從句。例:

            This herb can act as an antidote against snakebite.

            這種藥草可以用作蛇咬的解毒藥。

            Last summer she acted as a guide for tourists.

            去年夏天,她擔任旅游向導。

            This coin may act as a screwdriver.

            這枚硬幣可以充當螺絲起子用。

            Mr.Liu acted as group leader while Mr.Zhang was ill.

            張先生生病時,劉先生任組長。

            請注意,有時候,act for與act as的意義頗相近,但它們在表示概念方面互不相同。act as是“(臨時)充當”或“起…的作用”; act for則表示“代理”的涵義。請比較下一句和前述句:

            Mr.Liu acted for Mr.Zhang while,the latter was ill.

            張先生患病期間,劉先生代理他的工作。

            Act like的意思是“行為像”、“舉動像”,相當于英語的 to act in the manner of,它常與人或動物名詞連用。like是介詞,其后接賓語。例:

            That child acts like a grown-up.

            那個孩子的舉動像成年人一樣。

            Don"t act like a fool!

            別像傻瓜一般!

            His refusal of our offer acted like a wet blanket.

            他拒絕了我們的建議,真使我們掃興。

           ?。ㄗⅲ篴 wet blanket 作“令人掃興的事或人”。)

            admit,admit of

            一般說來,admit表示“許入”、“進入”(allow somebody or something to enter)或“承認”(acknowledge)的意義;admit of則表示“容許”(allow of)或“容有”(leave room for)之意。例如:

            This ticket admits one person only.

            此券只準一人入場。

            I admitted him to the lecture.

            我準許他入內聽講。

            He has admitted the fact.

            他已承認此事。

            This matter admits of no delay.

            此事刻不容緩。

            This word admits of several interpretations.

            這個詞可作幾種解釋。

            Admit的主語既可以是物,也可以是人,而admit of 的主語只可以是沒有生命的事物。例如,我們不能說: I can"t admit of your doing it,而只能說:I can"t allow you to do it。又如,不可以說:He can admit of no question,而應該說:His veracity admits of no question(他的誠信是勿容置疑的)。

            值得注意的是,admittance和admission都是admit 的名詞,它們都有“準入”之意,但使用場合不同。一般說來,admittance用于直義,即指準許某人進入某一場所;admission則大都用于比喻意,指準許進入的權利、入場費或入會費而言。因此,“入場券”譯作admission ticket,不譯作admittance ticket?!叭绶枪?,不得擅進(非請勿進)”則譯作 No admittance except on business?,F將這兩個詞作一比較:

            They refused him admittance when he arrived.

            他抵達時他們拒絕他入場。

            They granted him admission.

            他門準許他入會。

            此外,admit用作解“承認”時,之后可以接動名詞或從句,但不能接動詞不定式。例如: He admits having seen the book或 He admits that he saw the book。但不可以說:He admits to have seen the book。

            在現代英語中,有時我們可以看到 admit to這么一個短語,其義相當于confess to (承認),例如:

            In spit of all the evidence against her,she refused to admit to the crime.

            雖然所有證據都對她不利,但是她拒絕承認犯了罪。

            有些西方學者認為,admit to 并不是地道的英語,最好避免使用。

            與之類似區別的詞語有 allow和allow of。前者的意思是“許可”(permit);后者的意思是“容有…余地”(leave room for)。它們的用法與 admit和 admit of相同。

            advance, advancement

            Advance用作名詞時,很易和另一名詞advancement 混淆不清,因為這兩個詞都有“前進”、“進步”和“進展”之意。它們的區別如下:

            一般說來,advance含有自動的意味,advancement 則含有被動的意味。例如:advance of science是“科學的進步”; advancement of science則是“科學的被人推進”。從下列兩個例句,我們可以辨別出它們的區別:

            Discovering a cure for AIDS would be a major medical advance.

            發現治療艾滋病的方法將是醫學上的一大進展。

            We have made a program for the advancement of science.

            我們已制定了一個發展科學的規劃。

            通過上列例句的對比,我們可以聯想到 advance in rank 和 advancement in rank;advance in industy和advancement in industry;advance in society和advancement in society等語的涵義區別。

            在表示“行軍”或“向…行進”的意義時,只能用advance,不可以用advancement。例:

            They have done their best to resist the advance of the enemy.

            他們已盡力阻擋敵人向前推進。

            Road blocks were set up to obstruct the advance of the demonstrators.

            設置路障是要阻止示威人士前進。

            在某些固定的詞組里,例如 in advance、in advance of、be on the advance,只能用advance,不可以用advancement。如:

            Please pay the bill in advance.

            請先付賬。

            The plane reached Hong Kong ten minutes in advance of its scheduled time.

            飛機比預定的時間提早了十分鐘到達香港。

            Recently the new stocks are on the advance.

            最近新股看漲。

            advance一字除用作名詞和動詞(如 In recent days prices advanced rapidly。近日來,價格猛漲)之外,亦可用作形容詞。作形容詞時,其意為“預先的”、“在前的”。如:advance notice(預先通知);advance booking (預訂/預售(票));advance payment(預先付款);advance copy((發行前的)新書樣本); advance party of soldiers(先頭部隊)。

            值得注意的是,advanced也可用作形容詞,但其意為“先進的”、“高級的”。如:advanced ideas(進步的思想);advanced algebra(高等代數);advanced courses(高級課程)。

            after, behind

            After用作介詞時,很易和另一介詞behind混淆不清,因為它們都表示“在…之后”的意思。它們的區別有以下幾點:

           ?。ㄒ唬┮话阏f來,after指時間的先后次序,意為“在…之后”(later in time than); behind指位置的前后,意為“在…后面”(in the rear of)。例如:

            I shall be free after ten o"clock.

            十點之后我有空。

            The national stadium is located behind the hill.

            國家運動場在山崗的后面。

           ?。ǘ゛fter常用以指順序,意為“跟在…之后”、“接著”、“接連”(in succession or next to in order); behind 則表示“隱匿在后”、“背著”或“遺留在后”之意。如:

            After you,please!

            您先請?。ǔ鲩T或進門時的客套用語)

            You should put the direct object after the indirect object.

            你應該把直接賓語放在間接賓語之后。

            The policemen are searching for the robbers door after door.

            警察正在挨家挨戶地搜查劫匪。

            Day after day and year after year…

            日復一日,年復一年……。

            Don"t stand behind the door.

            不要躲在門背后。

            Don"t speak evil of a man behind his back.

            不要在背后說人壞話。

            Who is behind the scenes?

            誰是幕后人?

            Those smugglers ran away and left no trace behind them.

            那些走私客逃走時沒有留下任何痕跡。

           ?。ㄈ┰谀承﹫龊舷?,after和behind可以互換使用,但涵義有所不同。如:

            Shut the door after you.(1)

            Shut the door behind you.(2)

           ?。?)句的意思是“隨手關門”,after含有離開與關門兩個動作的先后的意味;(2)句的意思是“關上你背后的門”,behind表示門的靜止狀態的意味,正因為如此,我們通常說:Don"t stand behind the door,而不說:Don"t stand after the door。

            值得注意的是,在另一些場合下,after和behind 在互換使用后,其意并無區別可言。如:

            John came in after Alice.

            John came in behind Alice.

            The dog ran after its master.

            The dog ran behind its master.

            Behind除作介詞外,尚可用作副詞、名詞和形容詞; after除作介詞外,還可用作副詞、連詞和形容詞,由于不屬本書探討范圍之內,這里就不贅述。

            alive, living

            這兩個詞都表示“活著的”、“有生命的”(having life)意思,詞義相同,但用法有所不同。

            Alive是表語形容詞,放在verb“to be”之后,不能放在它所說明的名詞之前。例如我們只可以說 The old man is still alive。

            Living既可用作表語形容詞,又可用作定語形容詞,故可放在它所修飾的名詞之前。

            我們既可以說:

            English is a living language.

            也可以說:

            Is his father still living?

            就使用場合而言,alive大都用于人,有時用作比喻或強調時也用于物。例如:

            Given the chance to sing on stage,he is very much alive.

            有機會在臺上唱歌,他顯得很活躍。

            The bazaar was all alive by the time we arrived.

            我們到達時,墟市非常熱鬧。

            Living則人物共用(請參閱上面兩例)。

            就詞性而言,alive只能用作形容詞,不能作名詞;living既可作形容詞,又可作名詞。例:

            Many people were burnt alive in the conflagration that happened in a multi-storeyed building.

            在一幢多層大廈內發生的大火中,很多人被活活燒死。

            Our living standards are rising steadily.

            我們的生活水平在不斷提高。

            Those who enjoy a good living seldom understand the suffering of the poor.

            過著美好生活的人一般都不明白窮人所受之苦。

            在某些場合下,living和alive表示的涵義并不相同,盡管它們都用作表語。例如:

            At last we found him in a trap in the forest,still living but not alive.

            通過對比,可以看出,living之意是“活的”;alive 之意是“有氣息的”。這里的not alive表示人雖然還活著,但已“氣息奄奄”、“沒有生氣”了。

            Alive有時尚可表示“alert”“感覺到的”、“敏感的”涵義。如:

            He is alive to the imminent danger.

            他感覺到那迫在眉睫的危險。

            alone, lone

            這一對詞都有“單獨”、“孤單”(having no other person or thing nearby)之意,但用法有所不同。

            就詞性而言,alone既可作形容詞,又可作副詞;而lone只能作形容詞,不能作副詞。例如:

            He is alone.(adj.)

            He live alone.(adv.)

            A lone bird flew past.(adj.)

            用作形容詞時,alone只能作表語;而lone一般只能作定語。例:

            I am alone.(不能說: I am an alone person)

            我獨居。

            She wants to make a lone flight.

            她想單獨飛行。

            在現代英語里,alone和lone跟lonely涵義不同,前二者只表示“單獨”,沒有感情色彩,但后者則表示“孤單、寂寞”的感受。例:

            Though I was alone in Hong Kong,I did not feel lonely.

            雖然我獨居香港,但是我并不感到寂寞。

            The lone traveller led a lonely life.

            那獨行客過著寂寞的人生。

            關于alone一詞,在使用時要注意幾點:

           ?。ㄒ唬゛lone是表語形容詞,因此,我們不能說:very alone,只可以說much alone或very much alone。

           ?。ǘ゛lone雖然作“單獨”、“孤單”解,但它并不一定用于表示貶義的場合,因為有些人生來就喜歡“孤單”和“清靜”,例如下句中的alone就是反映這個涵義:

            Leave me alone.

            不要打擾我。

           ?。ㄈ゛lone用在名詞或代詞之后可以表示“唯有”、“唯獨”之意。例:

            Jackson alone knows what happened.

            唯有杰克遜一個人知道出了什么事。

            You alone can help me in this task.

            只有你才能在這件事中幫助我。

           ?。ㄋ模﹍et alone是固定詞組,其義為“更不用說”、“不在話下”。例:

            He can speak Spanish,let alone English.

            他能說西班牙文,英語就更不在話下了。

            He can"t drive a car,let alone a truck.

            他連小汽車都不會開,更不用說開卡車了。

            由例句可見,let alone與to say nothing of同義,它們可互換使用。

            also, too

            這兩個詞都是副詞,又都表示“也是”的意思,但在修辭意味和使用場合上有所不同。它們的區別如下:

           ?。ㄒ唬┮话阏f來,also用于比較正式(formal)的場合,語氣比too莊重; too是慣熟(familiar)的用語,使用范圍較廣。

           ?。ǘ゛lso在句中的位置要緊靠動詞; too在句中的位置比較靈活,有時插入句中,前后用逗號分開,有時放在句末。

           ?。ㄈ﹖oo只能用在肯定句中,不可用于否定句內。在否定句中,只能用either;also則可以用在否定句中。

            下面請看例句:

            The Hong Kong Chief Executive also heads the university as Chancellor.

            香港行政長官也以(大學)校監身份領導大學。

            Reading books is learning,but application is also learning and the more important form of learning.

            讀書是學習,買踐也是學習,而且是更重要的學習。

            We have not heard such a thing.Also,we have never seen such a scene.

            我們沒有聽見過這種事情,我們也從來沒有見過這種場面。

            請注意,一般說來,also在句中的位置應緊靠動詞,但有時為了強調其意,也可以將它放在句首或句末。

            Here,too,the colon must be followed by a dash.

            這里也一樣,應當在冒號之后加破折號。

            Mary,too,can play the piano.

            瑪麗也會彈鋼琴。

            Could you speak Japanese?—Yes,and Spanish too.

            您會說日語嗎?——會的,還會說西班牙語哩。

            Also雖然和too同義,但前者大都用于書面語,后者大都用于口語。例:

            The lady washed the children and also gave them dinner.(書面語)

            The lady washed the children and gave them dinner too.(口語)

            在口語中,too還可以用 as well代替。

            有時候,also在句中的位置不同,句子的涵義也會跟著變化。例:

            John is also concerned in this matter.(1)

            John also is concerned in this matter.(2)

            John is concerned in this matter also.(3)

           ?。?)句的涵義是:John is concerned in this matter as well as that one.

           ?。?)句的涵義是:John is concerned in this matter,just as somebody else is.

           ?。?)句的涵義是:This matter is the last of many that have been mentioned.

            amount, number

            這一對詞都能用作名詞和動詞,又都表示“數目”、“總數”之意,故很易混淆。

            它們之間的區別是,amount用于不可數名詞,表示“量”; number用于可數名詞,表示“數”。例:

            He has contributed a considerable amount of money to the Chinese University of Hong Kong.(amount為名詞)

            他捐了一筆為數可觀的錢給香港中文大學。

            Our expenditure amounts to fifty thousand dollars a month.(amount為動詞)

            我們每月的開支達五萬元。

            Every year the Hong Kong Book Fair draws a large number of visitors.(number為名詞)

            每一年香港的書展吸引了大量的觀眾。

            Today more than 30,000 students are enrolled in the polytechnic.

            The full-time students in our department number over 3,500.(number為動詞)

            現在理工學院有三萬多名學生;我們系里全日制的學生已超過三千五百名。

            Amount除作“數量”、“總額”解外,亦可表示“價值”之意。例:

            Your information is of little amount.(名詞)

            你的情報沒有什么價值。

            It is unlikely that the forthcoming talks will amount to very much.(動詞)

            看來即將舉行的會談不會有多大意義。

            與amount一詞搭配使用的字很多,常用的有:respectable~(相當大的數量); trifling~(微不足道的數額); approved~(核準的數額); fixed~(固定的數額); vast~(大量);average~(平均數);aggregate~(總額);required~(所需數); proper~(適量)。

            與number搭配的形容詞亦不少,常見的有:round ~(整數);serial~(編號); small~(為數不多);astonishing~(數目驚人); even~(偶數); odd~(奇數); high~(大數);low~(小數); huge(immense)~(巨大的數量);limited~(有限的數目);maximum~(最大量); minimum~(最小量);cardinal~(基數);ordinal~(序數);atomic~(原子序數)。

            another,the other

            這兩個詞都表示“另一個”的意思,但涵義和使用場合不同。Another是指不定數目中的“另一個”;the other是指兩個人或兩樣事物中的“另一個”。例:

            Have another piece of cake.

            再吃一塊餅吧。

            Please fatch another cup for me.

            請替我另拿一個杯子來。

            That"s quite another matter.

            那完全是另一回事。

            Both my uncles are abroad,one in Paris and the other in New York.

            我的兩個叔叔都在國外,一個在巴黎,另一個在紐約。

            One of them is yours;the other is mine.

            一個是你的,另一個是我的。

            值得注意的是,當我們在兩樣事物中任選一樣時,應用one or the other;在三樣或三樣以上任選一樣時,應用 one or other或one or another。

            在someone,somehow,somewhere等字后,只能用other,不能用another。例:

            We"ll have to do it somehow or other.

            在下列短語中,other也不能改作another:

            some kind or other

            some way or other

            反之,用one時,則用another,例如:one way or another。在only之后,指唯一的就用one或other而不用another。

            This is the only one/other stile to cross before we reach the wood.

            當others和some對比使用在一個句子中,others失去“其他的”意義,而是表示“有的”或“有些”之義,相當于句中前面的some。例如:

            Some like this,others like that.

            有些人喜歡這個,自些人喜歡那個。

            Some cleaned the blackboards,others mopped the floor.

            有些人擦黑板,有些人拖地板。

            ante-,anti-

            這一對前綴的意義并不相同。ante- 是拉丁前綴,其意為“前面”、“在…之前”或“早于”(in front of or earlier than)。它既可以指地點,也可以指時間。例如:

            anteroom 前廳;前房

            antenuptial 婚前的

            antebellum 戰前的

            antedate 先期;早日

            antenatal 出生前的/產前的

            antediluvian 太古的;大洪水前的

            antemeridiem(a.m.) 上午的;午前的

            Anti- 是希臘前綴,意為“反對”、“反面”(opposed to or the reverse of)。它加于名詞和形容詞之前。例如:

            Anti-Japanese War 抗日戰爭

            anticlockwise 反時針方向

            anti-militarist 反軍國主義者

            anti-aircraft gun 高射炮

            anti-trade wind 反季候風

            antichrist 反基督者或偽基督

            anticlimax 戲劇高潮后的緩和;修辭學里

            的“漸降法”

            Anti-也可以用在醫學和化學術語里。例如:

            antidote 解毒藥

            antiseptic 防腐劑/消毒藥

            antibiotics 抗生素

            anti-freezing liquid 防凍液

            antibody 抗體;抗毒素

            在英語中,以ante-,anti- 作為前綴的詞不勝枚舉,下面也是一些常用的詞:

            antecedent 先行詞

            antechamber 前廳

            antecessor 祖先;發起人

            antemortem 死前的

            antibiotics 抗菌素

            anticyclone 逆旋風

            anti-everything 樣樣都反對的

            antigas kit 防毒裝備

            anti-icer 防止結冰的裝置

            antifriction 摩擦減少劑

            antiphlogistine 消炎劑,消腫劑

            請注意,anticipate的意思是“預期”、“預料”,這里的anti-并不表示“反對”之意,而是“預先”的意思。因此,我們說,這里的anti-等于ante-,是ante- 的變體(variant)。

            anyway, any way

            這一對詞的意思并不一樣。anyway和anyhow同義,但前者多用于美國英語,后者多用于英國英語。anyway 在句中用作副詞和連接詞,義:“無論如何”、“不管怎樣”,相當于 in any case和at any rate。例:

            Anyway,we can try.

            不管怎樣,我們可以試試看。

            I will not change my mind anyway.

            無論如何,我不愿意改變我的宗旨。

            “I can give you a lift if you wait”—“No,I"ll walk Thanks,anyway.”

            “如果你等一下,我可以駕我的車送你去?!薄安挥昧?,我步行好了。謝謝你(盡管我不坐你的車)!”。

            Any way的意思是“任何方法”、“任何方式”,way 是名詞,any是修飾它的定語。例:

            If there is any way in which you can help me tide over the difficulties,let me know.

            如果你有什么辦法幫助我度過難關,請告訴我。

            He could not find the way to the village in any way.

            他怎么也找不到那條通向村莊的馬路。

            I cannot manage it any way.

            我無法做到此事。

            在上面第一個例句中,any way是用作條件狀語從句的主語;在第二個例句中,any way作介詞 in的賓語;在第三個例句中,any way用作狀語,修飾謂語動詞 cannot manage。

            as well as,as well

            這一對短語僅差一字之微,意義相近,故很易引起混淆。

            作為習語用作介詞時,as well as的涵義是“還有”、“不但…而且…”。值得注意的是,在A as well as B的結構里,語意的重點在 A,不在 B。因此,“He can speak Spanish as well as English.”的譯文應該是:“他不但會說英語,而且會講西班牙語”,決不能譯作:“他不但會說西班牙語,而且會講英語”。如果這樣翻譯,就是本末倒置了。as well as和 not only… but also…同義,但前者的語意重點和后者的語意重點恰好顛倒。

            如果 as well as用作連詞引出比較從句,其義為“和…一樣好”。因此,“He speaks Spanish as well as English.”應譯作:“他說西班牙語像說英語一樣好”。語意的重點依舊在前部,不在后半部。

            請注意 as well as以下的用法:

            She called on you as well as I.

            不但我來看你,她也拜訪了你。

            She called on you as well as me.

            她不但拜訪了我,也拜訪了你。

            在下列句中,as well as表示“像…一樣”的涵義:

            She as well as you is an English teacher.

            她像你一樣也是英文教師。

            這里的謂語動詞用is,不用are,因為句中的主語是she,不是she和you。

            As well是副詞短語,其義為“也”,相當于too,它一般放在句末,有時和連詞and或but搭配使用。例:

            He is a worker,and a poet as well.

            他是工人,但也是詩人。

            China possesses enormous quantities of coal and is rich in other minerals as well.

            中國擁有大量煤炭,其他的礦藏也很豐富。

            Mr.Liu can speak English,but he can speak Cantonese as well.

            劉先生會說英語,但他也能講廣東話。

          asleep, sleeping

          這兩個詞都表示“入睡”、“睡著”的意思,但用法各異,主要區別有以下幾點:

          (一)asleep是表語形容詞,在句中放在verb“tobe”之后;它不能放在名詞之前,例如我們不可以說:Look at the asleep baby,應把asleep改為sleeping。例:

          She was fast asleep;I couldn"t wake her up.她睡得很熟,我喊不醒她。

          The old man has fallen asleep.那個老人睡著了。

          請注意,be asleep是指“睡著”的狀態,如果表示“入睡”的意味,就要用fall asleep。上面兩個例句反映了這個區別。

          (二)sleeping 是定語形容詞,它放在它所修飾的名詞之前,如the sleeping baby。如果放在 verb“to be”之后(He is sleeping),sleeping不是形容詞,而是動詞,is sleeping 是現在進行時。例:

          Who is that sleeping man?那個在睡覺的人是誰?

          Keep an eye on the sleeping baby.照看好那個在睡覺的嬰孩。

          Let sleeping dogs lie.莫惹事生非。

          sleeping一詞有構詞能力,它能和另一些詞構成復合名詞。如:sleeping-bag(睡袋);sleeping-car(臥車);sleeping-pill(安眠藥);sleeping-sickness(昏睡癥);sleeping-partner((不參與經營的)匿名合伙人)。

          Sleeping有一近義詞,即sleepy。sleepy既可作表語,又可作定語。作表語時,義:“困倦”、“想睡覺”,用作定語時,義:“貪睡”、“寂靜的”。例:

          The children fell sleepy;put them to bed.孩子們困了,把他們放到床上睡吧。

          John is a sleepyhead.約翰是個貪睡的人。

          Here are the outskirts/suburbs of Kowloon.Do you like this sleepy valley?

          這里是九龍的郊區。你喜歡這寂靜的山谷嗎?

          at ease,with ease

          這兩個介詞短語的詞義范圍和使用場合并不相同。at ease的意思是“安逸地”、“安心地”、“自在地”(feeling confident or relaxed),其反義短語為ill at ease;with ease的意思是“輕松地”、“容易地”(easily or without difficulty)。

          就使用場合而言,at ease即可作表語,亦可作狀語;with ease 只能用作狀語。例:

          The old couple are now quite at ease as their son is out of danger.

          這一對老夫妻現在可安心了,因為他們的兒子已經脫離危險。

          With good social security,the aged can live at ease.有好的社會保障,老年人都過得很安逸。

          Her promise of support set my mind at ease.她答應支持我,就使我放心了。

          I don"t know why he is ill at ease.我不知道為什么他心神不寧。

          They fulfilled the task with ease.他們輕松地完成了任務。

          Our football team gained the day with ease.我們的足球隊很輕松地就贏了這場球。

          Every day we marched twenty miles with ease.每天我們毫不費力地行進二十英里。

          注:stand at ease是軍事術語,義“稍息”;take one"s ease是“休息”或“無拘無束”。例:

          The soldiers are standing at ease now.士兵們現在在立正稍息。

          We are now taking our ease.我們現在是優哉游哉。

          Please sit and take your ease while enjoying a cup of coffee.請坐下來舒舒服服地喝杯咖啡。

          at heart,by heart

          這一組短語的涵義也各不相同。

          At heart 的意思是“在心里”、“心底里”或“本質上”(from the heart,from the bottom of one"s heart or essentially)。by heart 的意思是“背誦”、“熟記”(by rote;to learn so well that one can remember it perfectly)。請看下面例句:

          That socialite is a rascal at heart.那個知名人士實質上是個壞蛋。

          A councillor should have the collective interest of society at heart.議員應當關心大眾的利益。

          At heart,Mr.Lin does not approve your proposal.林先生的心里并不贊同你的建議。

          Mr.Wang looks stem,but he is kind at heart.王先生看來嚴肅,但買質上他很仁慈。

          I know this poem by heart.我熟讀/我能背誦這首詩。

          I don"t see the point of learning by heart all the dates in the history book!

          我真不明白為什么要把歷史書里所有的日期都要記下來!

          請注意下列短語的意思:(跟前例 have something at heart相近)

          in one"s heart of hearts 在內心深處

          take something to heart 認真考慮/關注某事

          set one"s heart on something 決心做/得到某事/物

          cut(or touch)sb to the heart 觸及某人痛處

          one"s heart is in something 把整個心放在某事上

          at last,at length

          這一對短語都有“終于”、“最后”的意思,但涵義和使用場合有所不同。

          At length 這個詞組共有三個意義: (1)長時間地。例如:He spoke at(great)length.(2)詳細地。例如:They treated the subject at length.(3)終于;最后。例:After flying for ten hours,they got to San Francisco at length.

          作第三種意義使用時,at length與at last同義,但它們的內涵卻有所不同。當人們做某事時,遇到了困難,經過奮斗,最后得以完成,在這種場合,我們用at last。如果在做的過程中,經歷了很長的時間才得以完成,這時候,不論困難大小,都可用at length表示。為此,我們說,at last強調的是“經過努力奮斗”;at length 強調的是“經歷很長的時間”。通過下列例句的對比,不難看出它們之間的區別:

          Before they climbed down the side of the cliff,they met with many obstacles,but they surmounted them at last.從懸崖的側面爬下來之前,他們遇到了許多障礙,但終于把它們克服了。

          In spite of every obstacle,they have at last arrived at the destination.

          盡管障礙很多,他們終于到達了目的地。

          After a voyage of five months,they at length arrived safe and sound.經過五個月的航行,他們終于安全抵達。

          請注意,用length構成的介詞短語很多,常見的有:

          Hong Kong Exhibition Centre measures 200 metres in length.香港展覽中心長達二百公尺。

          They discussed this problem at great length.他們非常詳細地討論了這個問題。

          Yesterday I had my picture taken at the studio at full length.昨天我在照相館拍了一張全身照。

          They travelled through the length and breadth of the country.他們走遍全國。

          at(the)least,not(in)the least

          這一對短語的涵義有很大的差異。

          At least的意思是“至少”(指數量或程度上)也可解作“反正就是…”。它與 at the least,at the very least同義,可互換使用,但后兩者有強調意味,遠不及前者用得普遍。

          下面請看例句:

          The total enrolment of the university in the academic year 1991-1992 was at least 10,000,including undergraduate and postgraduate students.

          在1991-1992學年期間,該大學至少有一萬名大學生,包括本科大學生和研究主。

          Even if you cannot help him,you can give him encouragement at least.就算你未能幫助他,至少你可以鼓勵他。

          Whether you like it or not,at the very least,this is reality.不管你是否喜歡,反正這是個現實。

          Not the least 的意思是“毫不”、“一點也不”(by no means),也可寫作 not in the least。但后者一般不用作定語?,F今,后者更常見。

          Are you cold?—Not(in)the least.你冷嗎?—一點也不冷。

          Spanish has not the least interest for them.(作定語,沒有in)他們劉西班牙語毫不感興趣。

          (此句亦可改寫為:They do not take the least interest in Spanish)

          You shouldn"t relax your vigilance(in)the least.你們不能絲毫放松警惕。

          另一方面,not least義為“尤其是,特別是”:

          That film caused public revulsion, not least among the education circles.

          該電影引起公憤,特別是教育界的深惡。

          短語 least of all的涵義是“最不”。例:That"s the thing I like least of all.(這是我最不喜歡的東西)。

          at the end of,by the end of

          這一對短語的意思都是“在…的末了”、“在…的一端”,意義上相似,但使用場合有所不同。

          一般說來,at the end of用于表示具體事物或場所的場合,它也可以用來表示比喻意。例:

          The school is situated at the end of the street.該校位于這條街的盡頭。

          We"ll have an exam in English at the end of January.一月底我們要參加英語考試。

          They were at the end of their patience.他們忍無可忍。

          He is at the end of his wits.他智窮才盡,束手無策。

          By the end of用于表示時間的場合,往往含有“不遲于”的意味。值得注意的是,at the end of亦可用于表示時間的場合(見上面第二個例句),但其義和by the end of有所不同。試對比下面兩例:

          at the end of January一月底(指一月份的最后一天)

          by the end of January一月底之前(指一月份結束前的幾天)

          We are to complete the task by the end of the year.年底之前我們必須完成此項任務。

          Their communication is at an end.他們的交往到此為止。

          短語 in the end的涵義是“終于”、“最后”,其義相當于 at last。例:

          I"m sure everything will turn out satisfactory in the end.我確信,最后一切都會令人滿意的。

          In the end things will mend.船到橋頭自會直。

          await,wait

          這兩個詞都是動詞,又都有“期待”、“等候”之意,但用法有所不同,它們的區別如下:

          (一)await是及物動詞,后面直接接賓語;wait雖然也可用作及物動詞,但在現代英語中,一般作不及物動詞用,與for,to,till,until等詞連用。

          (二)await的賓語大都是抽象名詞,如:decision,reply,arrival,announcement,return等;wait for的賓語一般是人或事物。

          The judge awaits the coroner"s inquest before giving a verdict.法官在作裁決前等待驗尸官的調查。

          I have been waiting for her for an hour at the bus stop.我在公共車站等候她已一小時了。

          (三)await之后接動名詞;wait之后接動詞不定式。例如:

          We shall await hearing further from them.

          We shall wait to hear further from them.我們在靜候他們進一步的消息。

          (四)await多用于書面語;wait 多用于口語。如:

          This plan awaits the approval of the board of directors.這項計劃有待董事局批準。

          I have been waiting here for a long time.我已在這里等了好久了。

          (五)wait 除作動詞外,還可用作名詞。例:

          I had a long wait for the train.我等火車等了好久。

          They pursue a policy of wait and see.他們采取等待和觀望的政策。

          如上所述,wait在特定情況下也可以用作及物動詞,例如:to wait your turn;to wait one"s opportunity。

          請注意下列句子中await和wait的使用場合:

          We await (or wait for)your reply.

          We wait for(不能用await)you to reply.

          I shall wait to bring her home.(不能用await)

          I await (or wait for)your ruling on the matter with some impatience.

          當await的主語是沒有生命的事物而賓語是人時,await表示 be in store或lie in wait for之意。如:

          On arriving at the guest house,he found a telegram awaiting him.

          Little did he realize what a surprise awaited him at home.

          A hearty welcome will await you.

          請注意,Time and tide wait(s)for no man(歲月不待人)的wait既可以加s,亦可不加s。

          award,reward

          這兩個詞都可以用作名詞和動詞,作名詞時,意義相近,但不是同義詞。

          作名詞時,award的意思是“獎品”、“獎金”,其義與prize近似,兩者都指因為作出杰出成就而受獎。例:

          The Olympic winner received a gold medal as an award.

          He won the second award of $ 2,000.

          而reward作名詞時,其意為“賞金”、“酬金”或一些非金錢的報酬。例:

          We will offer a reward of ten thousand dollars for information about the case.

          如果有人提供有關案件的情報,我們愿意出一萬元賞金。

          We don"t expect substantial rewards.我們并不期望得到優厚的報酬。

          用作動詞時,award的意思是“授與”、“頒發”、“判給”;reward則表示“報答”、“酬謝”之意。例:

          He was awarded the first prize for Outstanding Industrial Design.他獲杰出工業設計一等獎。

          We judge awarded him twenty thousand dollars as damages.法官判給他二萬元作為賠償費。

          You should reward them according to their deserts.你應該對他們論功行賞。

          Is that how you reward me for my help?你就是這樣來報答我給你的幫助嗎?

          reward也可以用于比喻意。例:

          I would feel amply rewarded if my book—A Study of English Twins—could be of some help to the readers.

          如果我的書《英語學生詞語之研究》對讀者有所幫助的話,我就感到心滿意足了。

          be ashamed for,be ashamed of

          這一對形容詞短語的涵義并不相同。

          To be ashamed for 的意思是“為…(一般指外在的人或事物,如他人)而感到羞恥”;to be ashamed of的意思是“由于…(一般指內在的人或事物,如自己)而感到羞恥”。例:

          I"m ashamed for you.我為你感到羞恥。

          I"m ashamed of you.我以你為恥。

          I felt ashamed for the callousness of the government in tackling land speculation.

          對于政府處理地產投機態度麻木不仁,我引以為恥。

          Are you ashamed of doing such a thing?你做這樣的事感到羞恥嗎?

          其他因搭配介詞不同而含義及用法改變的詞語有:

          He is considerate of other people"s feelings.他能體諒別人的感情。

          He is considerate to old people.他對老年人很體貼。

          I"m anxious for a change.我渴望改變一下環境。

          I"m anxious about his health.我為他的健康而擔憂。

          She did it of herself.她自愿去做此事。

          She did it by herself.她獨立去做此事。

          They are suffering for their country.他們正在為國受苦。

          They are suffering from the war.他們由于戰爭而在受難。

          be going to,will

          Be going to在表示“將要”的意味時,很容易和will混淆不清。

          試看下面的對話:

          A:The detergent has been used up.洗潔精已用光了。

          B:I"m going to get some today.C:I"ll get some today.

          乍然看來,乙和丙的答話的意思是一樣的,都是:“今天我要去買些”,其實不然。乙用 am going to get回答甲,其言外之意是:“在甲講洗潔精用完這句話之前,他早已心中有數,并且早就有去買洗潔精的打算”。丙用will get來回答,表示:“事前并不知道洗潔精已用完,原先也沒有打算去買,直等到甲講了之后,他才決定去買”。

          通過上面的例句,我們可以知道下列對話中乙、丙的回答的不同涵義了:

          A:Where is my dictionary?

          B:I"m going to get it for you.

          C:I"ll get it for you.

          此外,be going to和will還有下列的區別:

          (一)be going to表示即將發生的動作;will表示將來發生的事情,不一定是最近期間之事。例:

          She told him she was going to quit the job.她告訴他,她即將辭職不干。

          She will go to Australia next year.她明年要去澳洲。

          (二) be going to可以用以表示某人打算做某事;will則用以敘述某件將要發生之事。前者含有主觀意愿;后者只是客觀的敘述。例:

          He is not going to be made a scapegoat.他不會去做替罪羊。

          He will not become a scapegoat.他不會做替罪羊。

          (三)在表示按計劃或安排要發生的動作時,可以用be going to;will只表示單純的將來,并無按規定或計劃之意。例:

          The railway is going to be open on October 1.這條鐵路將于十月一日通車。

          This railway will be electrified when there is a need.有需要時,這條鐵路將改為電氣化。

          Be off,to be off

          這兩個短語的涵義并不相同。

          Be off!的意思是“走開!”、“滾開!”,相當于英語的Be gone!或Get away!例:

          Be off! you wretch!滾開!你這個卑鄙的家伙!

          Be off! or I"ll call the police.你出去,否則我要報警啦。

          Be off!亦可寫作 Be off with you!或 Off with you!這三種形式可互換使用。

          To be off的涵義較多,有“離去”、“出發”、“脫離”、“暫?!?、“中斷”、“取消”等義。例:

          I must be off.(=I must leave now.)我該走了。

          We are off?。ǎ絆ff we go?。┪覀兂霭l了!

          值得注意的是,We are off!和Off we go!可根據不同的場合和上下文,表達不同的時間概念。它們能表示We have started、We are starting和We are about to start等義。同樣,They are off to Macau根據不同的場合,可分別譯作:“他們已去澳門”、“他們正在動身去澳門”和“他們將要去澳門”。

          Her shoes are off!她把鞋脫了!

          The electricity(water or gas)is off!斷電(水或煤氣)啦!

          Their engagement is off.他們的婚約取消了。

          除上列各義外,to be off還可用以表述下列意思:

          We are off every Wednesday.我們每星期三休息。

          She sounds off on the telephone.談電話時她有點不客氣/不自然/不對勁。

          All books have 20% off.所有的書籍均八折出售。

          This fish is slightly off.這魚有點不新鮮。

          The motor is off.  馬達停了。

          To be off 還可用在某些固定的說法里。如:

          to be off with the old love and on with the new(另找新歡)

          believe,believe in

          這一對詞語都表示“相信不疑”的意思,但詞意有細微的區別。

          Believe表示“相信”、“信以為真”(to accept as true)之意,它是及物動詞,其后直接跟賓語。例:

          Do you believe his reports?你相信他的報告嗎?

          I could hardly believe my eyes.我幾乎不能相信自己的眼睛。

          In ancient times it was believed that the earth was flat.古時候,人們認為地球是扁平的。

          Believe in則表示“信仰”、“信任”(to have faith in somebody or something)之意。其后的常用搭配語為:有關宗教、理論、原則、概念及可信任之人,如:a religion、ghosts、 fairies、 a theory、 a friend等詞;例中的believe為不及物動詞。如:

          We do not believe in ghosts.我們不信鬼神。

          He believes in getting plenty of exercise.他相信多鍛煉身體就會有好處。

          In the days of the French Revolution,people believed in liberty,equality and fraternity.

          法國大革命時代的人們信奉自由、平等及博愛。

          現在試比較下列兩語的不同涵義:

          I believe him.(=I believe what he says)我相信他(的話)。

          I believe in him.(=I trust him )我相信他是一個可以信得過的人。(即:我信任他)

          在英美人的談話中,經??梢月牭竭@么一句口頭禪——Believe me:這是一個用以表示希望對方相信自己談話的口頭語,它相當于I bet或 Take my word for it。例:

          Believe me,you will get well very soon.你一定會很快就恢復健康的。

          Believe me 可以根據不同的場合,譯作“真的”、“我不騙你”、“一定會”或“請相信”。

          borrow,lend

          這一對動詞都是“借”、“借用”的意思,但使用場合不同。

          Borrow是“借他人的東西以暫時使用”,表示“從(問)…借”之意,故譯“借入”;其搭配介詞為from。例:

          May I borrow your car?我可以借你的汽車用一下嗎?

          Did you borrow money from him ?你問他借過錢嗎?

          Some people are good at borrowing but had at giving back.有些人很會借東西,但很少歸還。

          Japanese has borrowed heavily from Chinese.日語從漢語借用了大量的詞匯。

          Lend是“將自己的東西暫時借給別人使用”,表示“借給……”之意,故譯“借出”;其搭配介詞為to。例:

          Will you lend me your car?你可否把汽車借給我?

          I"m sorry.I"ve already lent my car to Mr.Wang.對不起,我已經把我的汽車借給王先生了。

          在某些場合下,“lend…to”可以表示“給予”、“賦予”之意。例:

          A fireplace lends coziness to a room.壁爐給房間帶來溫暖舒適之感。

          A becoming dress lends charm to a lady.合身的服裝會給女士增添魅力。

          The rural environment lent itself to the restoration of his health.

          鄉村的環境有助于他恢復健康。

          Loan與lend同義,前者大都用于美國,后者大多用于英國:

          He loaned/lend me all the antiques for exhibition.他借給我全部古董作為展覽之用。

          Loan亦可用作名詞,如:make a loan(借出);pay off(repay)a loan(償清或償還借款)。例:

          He obtained cheap loans from the bank.他從銀行獲得低息貸款。

          breath,breathe

          這兩個詞都是表示“呼吸”的意思,但詞性和讀音不同。 breath/breI是名詞; breathe/briJ/是動詞。初學英語的人容易將breathe的e丟掉,以致與breath混淆不清。

          請看下面例句:

          After we had climbed to the top of the hill,we stopped to gather breath.我們爬到山頂后便停下來歇口氣。

          Only in the countryside can we have a breath of fresh air.只有在郊野我們才能呼吸到新鮮的空氣。

          He has run himself out of breath.他跑得上氣不接下氣。

          The old lady breathed her last this morning.老太太今天早上斷氣了。

          In an attack of asthma,she breathed hard.哮喘發作,她感到呼吸困難。

          It"s healthy to breathe deeply in the morning早上作深呼吸對身體有益。

          請注意,在下列例句內,breathe和 take a breath不能互換使用,因為它們表達的涵義有所不同:

          We breathe in order to live.為了生存,我們要呼吸。

          We paused to take a breath我們停下來喘了一口氣。

          bring,take,carry,fetch

          這四個詞都是動詞,都含有“帶”或“拿”的意思,但使用場合各不相同。

          Bring作“帶來”、“拿來”解; take是bring的對語,作“帶去”、“拿去”解。例:

          Next year you may bring your family over from England.明年你可以把你的家屬從英國帶來。

          Why don"t you bring your girl friend to the party?你為什么不把你的女友帶來參加宴會?

          Next time don"t forget to brig me a copy of your work.下次不要忘了把一份您的作品帶給我。

          Please take these books to the library for me.請把這些書替我帶到圖書館去。

          Take the box away,please.請把盒子拿走。

          Carry表示“運載”、“攜帶”之意,運送的方式很多,可以用車、船,也可以用手甚至用頭;fetch則表示“去拿來”(go and bring)的意思。例:

          They are carrying some paintings to the art gallery.他們正在把一些畫帶到藝術館去。

          This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers.這輛巴士規定乘載一百人。

          Please fetch me the documents in that room.請到那間房間去把那些文件拿來給我。

          Please wait a minute.He"s just gone out to fetch some water.請等一會兒。他剛出去打水。

          現將bring,take和fetch用在一個句中,以便區別:

          Take that box and bring it with you,or if it is too heavy for you tocarry it,I"ll send Joe to fetch it.

          請注意,bring之后可以接不定式和動名詞,如:

          You will never bring me to admit it.或 You will never bring me to admitting it.

          在這種場合下,英美人用不定式的居多。bring在這兩句中表示 cause someone to do something之意(使某人做某事)。

          本文來源:http://www.2radtransport24.com/zhongkao/156915/

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          萌白酱无毛自慰
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